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Prepared especially for the instruction 

and training of students of the 

American School 

Raymond S. Zeitler 

American School 
Chicago U. S. A. 


■?- 2.3- * * liansporlation 





Long Period of Development. Since the advent of the steam 
locomotive, inventors and designers have turned their attention 
toward the production of railway cars in which the power plant 
is self-contained. All forms of motive power have been tried 
in many and various combinations: steam, with the flash boiler 
and high pressure — coal and oil fired; electric motors driven by 
storage batteries; compressed air; and the internal-combustion 
engine, with combination drives of every sort. These drives may 
consist of electric generators and motors, mechanical transmissions 
with spur gearing and clutches, electro-mechanical combinations, 
and friction drives. The hydraulic transmission has also been 
tried, but little has been done with it, owing, no doubt, to the 
fact that designers of self-contained cars are for the most part 
unfamiliar with hydraulic principles and their application to 
power transmission. 

The self-contained cars of the past favored the steam engine 
design, with the engine mounted on the trucks and the boiler 
within the car body. This, of course, was an adaptation of the 
steam locomotive in smaller units to individual cars and was used 
before the internal-combustion engine was developed. This feature 
is still found in practically all the modern steam self-contained 
cars and takes from 10 to 15 feet of valuable space within 
the car body for engine room and does not permit a passage 
between cars when two or more motor cars are coupled together 
in a train. European countries have a number of these cars still 
in use and have been rather successful with them but are, how- 
ever, rapidly adopting those using the internal-combustion engine, 
owing to its larger radius of operation and economies. 


Adaptability of Internal-Combustion Engines. A number of 
forces or circumstances early destined the steam and compressed- 
air motor cars to give way to the more compact and easily 
handled internal-combustion engine type. A main reason for 
the rapid advancement of the internal-combustion engine is the 
fact that with it more power can be placed in a given space 
than with any other form of prime mover, and moreover its 
radius of operation and its economies surpass all others. It has, 
therefore, come to be looked upon as the only substitute for 
' the steam engine and the only suitable motive power for self- 
contained railway motor cars and for a new type of locomotive. 

Development Due to Automobile and Marine Service. Tracing 
the evolution of the railway motor car to the present date, it is 
to be noted that while the internal-combustion engine appeared 
early in the manufacture of these cars, it is only since 1908 
that it has monopolized the field. Many experiments were 
tried before the engine arrived at its present state of develop- 
ment. This development has been largely due to the auto- 
mobile and marine service which the internal-combustion engine 
has been called upon to do and which it has so ably performed. 
Railroad work calls for an engine that is quite different from 
those used in automobile and marine work, in that it must with- 
stand the everyday shocks and knocks which a machine in railroad 
service receives. 

Large Sizes of Units Possible. Internal-combustion engines 
using gasoline, fuel oil, distillate, or crude oil occupy a field in 
the marine service that few realize. So rapid has been their 
advancement that practically all new ships and submarines are 
equipped with them as their sole motive power. In fact, the 
submarine would not exist were it not for this compact source 
of power. In Europe several large ships of 18,000 hp., consist- 
ing of three units of 6000 hp. each, were constructed within the 
last few years. Each German submarine was equipped with four 
Diesel crude oil burning engines of over 1500 hp. each; in other 
words, each engine had as much power as the average steam 
locomotive. These facts serve to illustrate the sizes to which the 
internal-combustion engine has been designed with wonderful suc- 
cess. All new equipment, whether for railroad or any other 


service, must first pass through a number of years of develop- 
ment, during which the design is being perfected and, of more 
importance perhaps, operators are being instructed and educated 
as to the machinery's use. Indications, therefore, point to the 
fact that the internal-combustion engine is at last coming into 
its own and today stands without a competitor in the field of 
self-contained railway motor cars. 

Several Types of Transmission Developed. A very important 
feature in the adaptation of the internal-combustion engine to 
railway car service is the method of transmitting the power of 
the prime mover to the wheels on the trucks. Hence study of 
transmission is absolutely necessary. It is a well-known fact that 
the internal-combustion engine does not possess the ability to 
start a load until the engine itself has attained a speed correspond- 
ing to the horsepower required to move the load; that is, the 
load cannot be thrown directly on the engine but must be applied 
gradually through some elastic medium. These mediums are as 
numerous as the types of valve gears applied to the steam loco- 
motive and Tiave not become standardized in any definite direc- 
tion. However, the following descriptions cover the field fully 
and show the various combinations. 

Mechanical Transmission. The conventional form of mechan- 
ical transmission includes a clutch to connect and disconnect the 
motive power to and from its load and an entirely separate 
change-gear for positively driving the axle at certain speeds. 
These speeds bear a definite relation to the rate of rotation of 
the driven members of the clutch. In starting and accelerating 
a heavy load, such as a railroad car weighing from 30 to 60 tons, 
it is necessary to cause the clutch to slip until the motive power 
can pick up the load, therefore, the full engine power cannot be 
utilized until the clutch is acting positively. This necessitates 
overpowering a car for a given service — that is, installing an 
extra large engine — and consequently the practice is a waste of 
capital and energy. 

Electric Transmission. Electric transmission uses an electric 
power plant on a small scale. An electric generator is driven by 


whatever motive power is used and the current generated trans- 
ferred to the electric motors on the trucks. These are geared to 
the axles. In starting a car with this type of transmission, it is 
possible to obtain a fairly smooth and even motion of the car by 
varying the voltage and current, but it necessitates various 
switches and other apparatus. An electric motor in starting is 
no more efficient than the mechanical system and, in addition, 
it must not be forgotten that the final drive from the motors to 
the wheels is through gears. 

Electro-Mechanical Transmission. An electro-mechanical 
transmission system, of which there are a few in operation, con- 
sists of a dynamotor connected to the motive power with or 
without a storage-battery auxiliary. The final drive is through 
gears to the axle. In starting, the dynamotor (generator and 
motor combined) is used in conjunction with the gears. After 
acceleration the dynamotor and gears are cut out and a purely 
mechanical transmission is employed to carry the load. When this 
system is used with storage batteries, great care must be exer- 
cised to prevent rapid deterioration of the batteries owing to the 
sudden reversals of the current. 

Friction Transmission. The conventional form of friction 
transmission consists of two flat-faced discs with their planes at 
right angles to each other, the driving disc being held against 
the other with sufficient force to cause the driven disc to carry 
the load. These discs are usually held together by a compressed- 
air mechanism. The final drive from the driven disc to the 
wheels is through sprockets and chains. Excessive frictional 
losses occur in heavy transmission units of this type on account 
of the heavy pressures required to hold the discs together and 
the complicated final drive to the wheels. 

Hydraulic Transmission. Hydraulic transmission is a system 
using oil as a power-transmitting medium and having a piston pump 
with a variable and reversible action to generate pressure. The pres- 
sure is transmitted through suitable piping to a piston motor, with 
a fixed stroke, mounted on the axles. The pumps and motors are 
always of multiple-cylinder construction. As no gears are required 
and the control is simple, hydraulic transmission should prove an 
efficient and reliable method of transferring motive power to axles. 



Lower Running Cost of Electric or Self-Contained Units. 
It is now a good many years since the railroad companies, realiz- 
ing that they were incurring much unnecessary expense in running 
regular complete trains in branch and suburban service, endeav- 
ored to cut down expenses and, at the same time, improve and 
accelerate their train service, by installing a more flexible system. 

Any railroad when spread out in plan represents a network 
with feeders radiating from the chief arteries of travel. One of 
the greatest problems of railroad managers at the present time 
is to prevent these feeders from actually showing a deficit. It 
is, indeed, a fortunate railway system which makes a profit over 
the cost of operation on the passenger receipts from these feeder 
and branch lines. The solution of this problem points to elec- 
trification or self-contained units. 

Difficulties with Electrification. Electricity Not Primary 
Power. Frequency of service, high speed, general comfort of 
passengers, and increased service are advantages of independent 
electric units apparent to the lay as well as to the professional 
mind. These independent but expensive units are extremely 
adaptable and have proved very desirable. It must be remem- 
bered, however, that electricity is not a primary power and that, 
whether the steam locomotive or an electric car (using the third 
rail or trolley system) is employed for operating trains, steam is 
still the primary power. The advisability of using the one rather 
than the other method resolves itself into a comparison of two 
different methods of applying the primary power, namely, its 
direct application by the steam locomotive, which is notoriously 
wasteful and inefficient, or its indirect application by means of 
electric distribution from large centralized power plants. 

Cost of Electrical Installations. The enormous cost of installa- 
tion and maintenance of the electric system with its large power 
plants, accompanying substations, heavy copper feed wires and 
means for carrying them, rail bonding, and third rail or overhead 
trolley and the necessity of preparing safety devices against the 
dangers of the third rail have done much to prevent the general 
adoption of electrification. All these considerations, together with 
the doubt as to the reliability of the third rail or the trolley under 


adverse conditions, their impracticability for switching and yard 
work, and the certainty that electrification will be supplanted by 
improved methods in the future, have up to the present time 
made the railroads hesitate to go to the expense of electrification. 

Value of Gas Motor Cars. Saving in Operating Expenses. 
Turning now to the self-contained motor cars, the advantages are 
many. In the first place the cost per car mile of operating these 
self-contained units is about one-third that of the regular steam 
service, especially in England and on the Continent. It is appar- 
ent, therefore, that in running twice the number of daily trips 
with a gas motor car there wilt be an actual saving of about 30 
per cent in operation costs, not to mention the convenience and 
the increased service for the passengers hauled. 

Efficiency of Design. As to efficient design, certain of the 
gas motor cars have a great advantage over the present-day 
steam locomotive in tractive effort and drawbar pull. With the 
steam locomotive, steam car, or any car using side rods, the loss 
in power transmission is seldom recognized. The method of 
utilizing the adhesion weight of the locomotive on other wheels 
than the main drivers may be satisfactory so long as all the 
coupled wheels are absolutely of the same diameter. As soon as 
unequal wear occurs, however, inefficiency begins, and very 
serious inefficiency at times. Over twenty-five years ago tests 
showed that the losses resulting from this cause in the case of 
coupled wheels were nearly 50 per cent. The possibilities of 
utilizing, with the car or locomotive propelled by the internal- 
combustion engine, adhesion weight and tractive effort on all 
wheels, or on as many as may be necessary to give the desired 
acceleration, may lead, in the near future, to more effective 
results than with the ten drive-wheels of a "Decapod" locomotive. 

European Adoptions of Self-Contalned Motor Cars. In 
Europe, where necessity for economy is of vastly more importance, 
seemingly so at least, the railroads have for years been operating 
self-contained motor cars in all their various forms. The most 
onspicuous application of those using steam is on the Great Western 
Railway of Great Britain. On the Continent preference is expressed 
for the internal-combustion engine, noticeable among the adoptions 
being that on the Arad-Csanad Railway of Austria-Hungary. 


The .W^urttemburg street railway is the most aggressive of 
the foreign roads that have tried the independent motor car. 
It has experimented with storage battery cars, steam cars of the 
Serpollet type, and internal-combustion engine cars of the Daimler 
type. It is interesting to note that this road put an independent 
gasoline motor car into service over twenty years ago. 



General Features of Steam Equipment At first thought, one 
might naturally suppose that the steam engine would be the most 
suitable power for self-contained railway motor cars as it is 
comparatively easy to apply and, on account of its boiler acting 
as a reservoir, its power may be used as needed within certain 
limits. The usual design of this equipment placed the engine and 
boiler on the leading truck. During the years 1906 to 1908 the 
steam motor car flourished but, owing to the troubles enumerated 
later, it died out in the United States as rapidly as it had sprung 
into being. England and France still operate quite a number of 
these cars in suburban service with considerable success. Fig. 1 
shows typical English steam motor car equipment. 

What has been done in reducing the fairly powerful steam 
locomotive into a small compact space for motor car service is 
strikingly shown in the accompanying illustrations, Figs. 2 and 3, 
for example, showing a Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific car, 
the power plant of which was built by the American Locomotive 
Company in 1908. For service purposes, this locomotive is 
properly put in comparison with the smaller types of standard 
locomotives used on branch lines and, while certain reductions 
have been made by lopping off waste space and, consequently, 
dead weight, the engine, with the car of which it forms a part, is, 
for operative purposes, the equivalent of the light locomotive 

Details of Rock Island Car. In the car illustrated in Fig. 2, 
the entire engine and boiler are carried on a four-wheel truck — the 
forward truck of the car — of which the reae wheels are the drivers. 
Of the total weight of 104,000 pounds, 64,000 pounds is carried 



on this truck and includes 
the boiler, the engine, and 
a certain percentage of the 
weight of the car body. 

Engine. The engine, 
Fig. 3, is a two-cylinder 
cross-compound type, the 
cylinders being 91 and 14} 
inches in diameter with a 
12-inch stroke. Both high- 
and low-pressure cylinders 
are equipped with piston 
valves operated by Wals- 
chaert valve gears. The 
rear wheels are the drivers 
and are 38 inches in diam- 
eter. Working compound, 
the engine will develop, 
theoretically, a maximum 
tractive power of 4360 

Boiler . Superheated 
steam at 250 pounds boiler 
pressure is supplied to the 
cylinders from a horizontal 
boiler of the return-tube 
type. In order to eliminate 
the necessity of flexible 
steam joints, the boiler is 
mounted rigidly on the 
motor truck frame. By the 
use of the horizontal return- 
tube boiler, the problem of 
providing the largest 
amount of heating surface 
possible within the neces- 
sarily limited amount of 
space has been solved satis- 



factorily. The fire box is at the front end and the smoke box is 
directly above it. The gases of combustion pass through the 
tubes to the combustion chamber at the rear end of the boiler 
and thence forward through the return tubes to the smoke box. 
The fire box is 33 inches long and 43 inches wide and is bricked 
for burning oil as fuel. The barrel of the boiler is 45 inches in 
diameter. At the combustion chamber end there are 214 fire 
tubes 1J inches in diameter and 3 feet 9 inches long and an 
equal number of return tubes of the same diameter. The total 
heating surface is 565.6 square feet, of which the tubes con- 
tribute 528 square feet and the fire box the remainder. The 
boiler is fitted with a superheater located in the combustion 
chamber where the temperature of the gases is high. 

Superheater and Other Accessories. The superheater header 
is bolted to a cast-steel saddle secured to the top of the boiler. 
The header is divided transversely into saturated and superheated 
steam compartments by means of a vertical partition, and there 
are sixteen superheater tubes bent in the shape of a double loop 
and extending down into the combustion chamber. Steam passes 
from thfi dome through a short dry pipe to the superheater and 
through it to the high-pressure cylinder, which is located on the 
right side of the truck. 

The entire engine and boiler are contained within the wheel 
base of the truck, which is 8 feet 4 inches between wheel centers. 
As shown in Fig. 3, the locomotive is complete in every respect 
as to equipment of injectors, lubricators, gages, air-brake apparatus, 
and controlling gear. The construction of the car framing is 
such that the locomotive part can be detached from the car body 
for the purpose of general repair, though in its norma) position 
it is entirely enclosed in the front compartment. 

Kobusch-Wagnehals Car. The Kobusch-Wagnehals steam 
motor car, Fig. 4, built by the St. Louis Car Company in 1906, 
was one of the largest ever constructed, being 82 feet 2 inches 
over the pilot and 53 feet between truck centers. The weight on 
the drivers was 115,600 pounds and on the trailers 62,960 pounds, 
making a total of 178,560 pounds. 

Engine. The motive power was a duplex horizontal engine 
driving the forward truck through spur gearing. Side rods con- 


nected the front and rear 
drivers which had a diam- 
eter of 42 inches and a 
wheel base of 9 feet. Re- 
versal of the engine was 
accomplished as on a steam 
locomotive. The cylinder 
end of the engine was sup- 
ported on a ball-and-socket 
joint, permitting movement 
in all directions. The cyl- 
inders were 11 by 13 inches, 
having piston valves and 
being capable of developing 
240 horse-power at the rails. 
The tractive effort was 8080 
pounds and at not more 
than 5 m.p.h. (miles per 
hour) the car could haul on 
a level track, including its 
own weight, 538 tons; on 
a 1 per cent grade, 299 
tons; and on a 2 per cent 
grade, 172 tons. On the 
level at a speed of 41.6 
m.p.h., corresponding to an 
engine speed of 400 r.p.m. 
(revolutions per minute), 
the maximum load was 205 

Boiler. The car was 
equipped with a marine 
type of water-tube boiler 
having a working pressure 
of 250 pounds per square 
inch, a heating surface of 
1215 square feet, and a 
grate area of 43.5 square 


feet, there being five burners for oil. The oil was fed to the 
burners under air pressure. Oil and water were carried in long 
cylindrical tanks under the car, these tanks being 30 inches 
in diameter and 30 feet long and having a capacity of 2000 
gallons of water and 1000 gallons of oil. Ordinarily, the boiler 
was fed by marine pumps with a duplex injector as an auxiliary. 
The engine room occupied 10 feet of the car. 

Disadvantages of Steam Motor Car. The above descriptions 
give some idea of the skill put into the design of the self- 
contained motor car using steam. However, steam for independent 
motor cars has serious drawbacks, of which may be mentioned 
the great weight of the engine and boiler; the space required by 
the water and fuel, which confines the radius of operation to 
comparatively narrow limits; the clogging, scaling, and corroding 
of the boiler and piping, which rapidly reduce their efficiency; the 
time required for taking on water, firing up, coaling, etc.; the 
constant attention required by the engine and boiler; the annoy- 
ance of exhaust steam; and the danger of bursting the boiler 
and piping which have to be kept under high pressure. The 
introduction of the flash boiler and liquid fuel was attempted in 
order to overcome some of these difficulties, but the flash boiler, 
though eflkient in light automobile work, proved an utter failure 
for heavy railroad service. 

The steam motor car, therefore, offered none of the advan- 
tages of increased travel, comfort, and efficiency demanded by 
the public and could hardly have been expected to compete with 
the trolley car. It has, in the United States at least, been entirely 
replaced by the internal-combustion engine. 


Limits as to Power and Range of Operation. The storage 
battery car cannot exactly be classed with the self-contained rail- 
way motor car, as it is usually of very light construction and, 
having no reserve power in any form, cannot, when delayed, 
make up lost time. As a rule, the speed at which it operates is 
about 25 m.p.h. on level track. There is, however, a field for 
this car, especially where service is infrequent and the terminal 
points or charging stations are not more than 30 miles apart. 


Prussian State Rait 
way Car. The short lines 
of Europe use a consider- 
able number of cars of this 
type. Several cars were 
put in operation on tbe 
Prussian State Railways 
and met with considerable 
success for suburban serv- 
ice. The lines radiate from 
Mayence in three direc- 
tions, viz., 11, 7.5, and 11 
| miles, respectively, from 
: a the main terminal, making 
s a total mileage of 29.5. 
■" The cars are operated at 
■| speeds ranging from 20 to 
I 30 m.p.h. 

° Type of Car. As is 

J evident from Fig. 5, the 
3 car is of the side-compart- 
| ment type and consists of 
| six compartments, each 
| with seats for ten persons, 
I giving a total seating 
us capacity of sixty. In its 
gj general construction the 
ear resembles those used in 
the Berlin subways. It is 
mounted on three pairs of 
wheels of the ordinary 
kind, without trucks 
Since there is a motorman's 
cab at each end of the car. 
it is unnecessary to turn 
the car at the terminals. 
Batteries. The bat- 
teries are stored under the 


seats in each compartment and were built by the Accumlatoren Fabrik 
of Hagen. Under each seat is placed two large boxes which are slid 
into place and are protected with the front board of the seat, 
the top of the seat being hinged for battery inspection. The two 
boxes contain 7 and 8 cells, respectively, making 15 cells under 
one seat and 30 in a compartment. The entire car holds 180 
cells, which are ample for the grades and speeds on this line. 
The cells have a capacity of 230 ampere-hours at a 100-ampere 
discbarge rate. With a single charge the 180-cell battery can 
take care of a 36-mile run when the running speed is 24 m.p.h., 
which is the maximum speed on these lines. With this capacity 
the car makes two round trips without recharging. 

When the batteries are recharged, a flexible plug is fitted at 
each end of the car, the batteries not being removed except for 
repairs. The batteries may be charged in a single series of 180 
cells or in two groups of 90 cells each in parallel. The cells are 
considerably larger than ordinary, being 15$ inches long and 5 
inches high. Each cell weighs 156 pounds. There are four 
positive and five negative plates to the cell, these plates being 
separated by wood and gutta-percha strips and suspended on 
glass by means of lugs. The cell boxes are of wood specially 
treated and given an outer coating of acid-proof varnish. Con- 
nections are made to each cell by copper strips which, in turn, 
are protected by coatings of lead so that the fumes will not 
attack them. Special ventilation is provided to carry the fumes 
out of the car and at the same time provide a good supply of 
fresh air. The 180 cells weigh 10 tons and are capable of furnish- 
ing 68.5 kilowatt-hours on a single discharge. The iifo of the 
positive plate is estimated at 65,000 car miles and that of the 
negative at 40,000 car miles. 

Electrical Equipment. The electrical equipment, including the 
motors and control apparatus, was built by Siemens-Schrickert. 
On the front and rear axles are mounted motors of 25 horsepower 
each, arranged to operate in series-parallel. These motora have 
a gear ratio of 1 to 4.3 and are said to give 84 per cent efficiency, 
each motor having a total weight of 4800 pounds, including the 
gears and casings. Each cab is provided with a full set of operat- 
ing valves and gages and a control having nine running vHiJiifc; 


and four braking points. Braking is effected by abort-circuiting 
the motors under different conditions. The resistances are 
mounted on the roof. 

Fig. 6. First Beach-Edison Storage Battery Car 

Each compartment is arranged with two electric lights and 
with electric heaters beneath the floor and between the seats. 
The car fully loaded weighs 22 tons, each motor 2.4 tons, and the 
battery 10 tons, making the total weight about 37 tons. 

Fig. 7. Continental Type Car Built lor Cambria A Indiana Railroad 

American Railway Battery Cars. Edison Car. The first rail- 
way car operated with an Edison storage battery was placed in 
service in November, 1900, and later was used regularly in Brook- 


lyn, New York. This car, Fig. 6, was of very light construction, 
weighing only 5 tons and equipped with independent driving 
wheels; it proved very successful for the service for which it was 
intended. An Edison car used by the Cambria & Indiana Rail- 
road in Pennsylvania is shown in Fig. 7. 

Havana Storage Battery Train. In 1912 a storage battery 
train, Fig. 8, was built for Havana, Cuba, each car being 38 feet 
over the platform buffers, 8 feet 3 inches wide, and 12 feet 
7i inches from the top of the rail to the top of the roof. The 
cars were equipped with 220 cells of the A-6 nickel-steel alkaline- 
type batteries placed under the transverse seats. Two hundred 
of these cells were used for power and 20 for lighting and for 
operating the multiple-control relays. Each car was equipped 
with four 10-horsepower 200-volt 37.5-ampere motors with speeds 
of 800 r.p.m. Two motors permanently connected in multiple 
were suspended, one from each axle of the truck, and the wheels 
were driven by a gear on the inside of the wide hub through a 
single reduction to the motor pinion. 

The train was operated by a unique system of magnetic 
multiple-unit control and could be operated from either end of 
any car by a master controller placed on each platform. This 
master controller was fitted with a control and a reversing lever 
which were mechanically interlocked. Four speeds could be 
obtained from the master controller. In the first position, the 
motors were started with two pairs in series with the starting 
resistance. In the second position, all the starting resistance was 
cut out automatically, leaving the motors running in full series. 
In the third position, the two pairs of motors in multiple were 
connected in series with the starting resistance and the resistance 
was cut out automatically, leaving all the motors connected in 
multiple across the battery. In the fourth position, the series 
field of each motor was in parallel with a resistance — which further 
increased the speed. This sequence of operations took place simul- 
taneously on each car and was accomplished through the train line 
by means of two wires running through all the cars and connected 
to all the motor controllers, relay panels, and polarized relays. 

The trucks were of the diamond frame type and, while of 
light construction, proved exceptionally strong. The wheels were 




steel tired, with cast-steel centers and could rotate independently 
of each other on the stationary axle. This was accomplished by 
means of a rigid axle on which was pressed a hardened nickel- 
steel sleeve, over which two trains of hardened rollers rotated. 
These rollers, in turn, were held in the hardened nickel-steel race- 
way, it being pressed into the wide hub of the wheel. This inde- 
pendent wheel arrangement was said to reduce friction, especially 
on curves, and to give easier running qualities. 

The interior finish of these cars was mahogany and polished 
bronze, the exterior being of cedar, while the underframing was 
entirely of steel construction. The cars were also equipped with 
M.C.B. couplers, draft rigging, and buffer plates; the platforms 
were full vestibuled with end doors, allowing free communication 
between cars. The brake equipment consisted of a powerful 
hand brake as well as the Westinghouse A.M.M. automatic air 
system, controlled from the platform of any car. An electric 
whistle, secured to the roof at each end of each car, could be 
operated by a foot button connection on each platform. 

Qas Engine Cars Most Prominent. We will now consider the 
outstanding type of self-contained motor cars, namely, that in 
which the prime mover is an internal-combustion engine. The 
principal difference between the various installations lies in the 
type of transmission, and in treating the designs of different manu- 
facturers, the transmission types will be especially discussed. 

Truck Details. One installation making use of a friction 
transmission is shown in Figs. 9, 10, '11, 12 and 13. This car 
was equipped with two internal-combustion engines of 200 horse- 
power each, one being located on each side of the car body, the 
upper part of .the cylinders projecting into the car body, Fig. 11. 
The drive from the engine to the friction discs on the trucks, 
Fig. 10, was through two special universal joints. The power was 
delivered from a longitudinal shaft to the jackshaft by the fric- 
tion discs and thence to the wheels through sprockets and chains. 
The wheels were loose on the axles and mounted on roller bear- 
ings, which feature was said to make the car easier riding and 



steel tired, with cast-steel centers and could rotate independently 
of each other on the stationary axle. This was accomplished by 
means of a rigid axle on which was pressed a hardened nickel- 
steel sleeve, over which two trains of hardened rollers rotated. 
These rollers, in turn, were held in the hardened nickel-steel race- 
way, it being pressed into the wide hub of the wheel. This inde- 
pendent wheel arrangement was said to reduce friction, especially 
on curves, and to give easier running qualities. 

The interior finish of these cars was mahogany and polished 
bronze, the exterior being of cedar, while the underframing was 
entirely of steel construction. The cars were also equipped with 
M.C.B. couplers, draft rigging, and buffer plates; the platforms 
were full vestibuled with end doors, allowing free communication 
between cars. The brake equipment consisted of a powerful 
hand brake as well as the Westinghouse A.M.M. automatic air 
system, controlled from the platform of any car. An electric 
whistle, secured to the roof at each end of each car, could b* 
operated by a foot button connection on each platform. 

Gas Engine Cars Most Prominent. We will now consider the 
outstanding type of self-contained motor cars, namely, that in 
which the prime mover is an internal-combustion engine. The 
principal difference between the various installations lies in the 
type of transmission, and in treating the designs of different manu- 
facturers, the transmission types will be especially discussed. 

Truck Details. One installation making use of a friction 
transmission is shown in Figs. 9, 10, '11, 12 and 13. This car 
was equipped with two internal-combustion engines of 200 horse- 
power each, one being located on each side of the car body, the 
upper part of, the cylinders projecting into the car body, Fig. 11. 
The drive from the engine to the friction discs on the trucks, 
Fig. 10, was through two special universal joints. The power was 
delivered from a longitudinal shaft to the jackshaft by the fric- 
tion discs and thence to the wheels through sprockets and chains. 
The wheels were loose on the axles and mounted on roller bear- 
ings, which feature was said to make the car easier riding and 


also make it take curves easier; however, the extra apparatus 
necessary to drive the wheels independently more than offset any 

Fig. 9. View of Underframe Showing Location of Machinery 

advantage gained in this way, as the frictional losses in this large 
amount of machinery were abnormal. , 

The car and equipment were so arranged that either engine 
or truck could he operated independently or simultaneously b.y 



means of an electric generator and storage battery; moreover, 
electric starting of the engines was provided in addition to cur- 
rent for the lighting system. Power for holding the friction discs 

in contact was supplied by a small air compressor direct connected 
to the engine. As is evident in the underframe view. Fig. 9, 
the air passed between the car body and the trucks through a 
hose, an arrangement in itself a constant source of trouble. 


Control. The control system consisted of a number of levers 
and air valves, one set being located at each end of the car and 
thus providing double-end control and operation. This car was 
operated some ten thousand miles but was finally abandoned. 

Weakness in Friction Drive. One of the characteristics of 
the friction drive that bears considerable investigation, especially 

Fig. 13- Friction Drive Truck 

for large units, is that the driving and driven discs must, in order 
to act positively, be forced together with a pressure sufficient to 
produce a factional resistance equal to the maximum driving 
force at the point of contact, and as this so-called point of con- 
tact is in reality a very restricted area, exceedingly high unit 
pressures prevail between the members concerned in the trans- 
mission. It is very difficult to obtain materials of such qualities 


as will give long service under these conditions of relative motion 
under excessive pressures. 

In all forms of frictional driving, the motion of the driving 
and driven members one upon the other is not strictly a rolling 
motion but is complicated by an element of mutual slippage 
known as aide travel. This produces a great waste of energy and 
great wear and tear on the members. Also the excessive pressures 
with which the members are forced together are not self-contained 
but produce a severe end thrust on one shaft and a heavy trans- 
verse strain on the other which only very careful engineering can 
successfully overcome. 

For the reasons stated, it can readily be understood why the 
so-called friction drive is not a success for large high-powered 
railway motor cars. Frictional losses in this type of transmission 
are as high as 50 per cent. 


Orion Car. The Orion car, Fig. 14, was built by the Orion 
Automobile Company of Zurich, Switzerland, in 1906. Although 
of the single-truck type, it shows the early trend toward self- 
propelled cars. The body is the same as used on the Swiss rail- 
ways, the front end containing the motorman's cab while the rear 
end is full vestibuled. All the control apparatus is in the motor- 
man's cab. The spring suspension is of the usual single-truck 
type and the car is provided with couplers. 

Engine. The engine and the transmission, Fig. 14, are 
mounted on the underframe between the axles. The engine is 
bolted to two cross members and depends upon the spring suspen- 
sion of the car for its elasticity. It is of the Orion horizontal- 
opposed four-cycle two-cylinder type and delivers 30 horsepower 
at from 550 to 600 r.p.m., having a bore of 195 millimeters 
(7.68 inches) and a stroke of 205 millimeters (8.07 inches). The 
average speed of the car is 20 m.p.h. and it attains 25 m.p.h. on 
a level track. The engine cranks are set 180 degrees apart, the 
pistons being of forged nickel steel. All the moving parts are 
enclosed and lubricated by means of grease cups fed from a 
multiple lubricator. The gas inlet is regulated by means of a 
centrifugal governor. 


id ud Dataila of Orion Cm 



Transmission. The 
transmission consists of a 
friction clutch A, and a 
pair of bevel gears B, for 
driving the longitudinal 
shaft — it having univer- 
sal joints C and D. The 
friction clutch is set in 
the flywheel, which les- 
sens the vibrations, the 
energy of the moving 
parts being transmitted 
in the direction of the car 
movement. The bevel 
a gear is placed behind the 
J flywheel and the power 13 
transmitted to a second 
pair of bevel gears, which 
also serve for reversing 
the car movement. 

The gear transmis- 
sion is of the sliding- 
progressive type, the final 
drive being through a 
spur and pinion to the 
axle. In the operator's 
cab are the hand-brake 
lever, foot brake, clutch 
lever, and change-speed 
lever, only single-end con- 
trol being provided. The 
total weight of this equip- 
ment is only %\ tons. 

Simplex Car. The 
Motor Rail and Tram Car 
Company, Ltd., of 79 
Lombard Street, London, 
E.C., built a seventy- 


passenger motor car for the South Indian Railway Company, on 
the Pamban Viaduct Line, which is one of the links connecting 
Ceylon with India. This car, Figs. 15 and 16, is of very light 
design, weighing only 12 tons complete, and is equipped with s 
45-horsepower engine to give a speed of 25 m.p.h. on a 1 per cent 
grade. The car is mounted on double trucks of the swivel type 
which take a curve of 300-foot radius. The four-cylinder four- 
cycle water-cooled engine develops 45 horsepower at 1200 r.p.m. 
It is mounted with the crankshaft on the longitudinal center line 
of the car. The crankcase was especially designed for the service 
and has two holding-down bolts on each arm. 

Transmission. The engine is connected to the transmission 
by an internal-cone clutch, which is kept in engagement by 

Fig. IB. Underframe of Simples Coach 

laminated springs. The shaft carrying the male part of the 
clutch is connected through a flexible coupling to an intermediate 
shaft carried in a ball bearing directly behind the coupling and 
is suspended from a cross member of the underframe, with a 
similar coupling just ahead of the gear case. The gear case is 
mounted on two cross members of the underframe and the drive 
from the gear case to the worm is through a longitudinal shaft. 
All swiveling motion of the truck is taken up by the universal 
joints. This gear case is a very interesting piece of mechanism, 
giving three speeds in each direction, and is very small in size, 
though of ample strength. 

The torque is taken up on double radius rods attached to 
the worm wheel casing and pivoted on a cross member of the 
frame, the thrust being absorbed by the journal boxes, these 


having been especially de- 
signed for the front truck. 
The gear case has three 
shafts, which will be desig- 
nated as the engine, worm, 
and reverse shafts and 
which have their axes 
placed in a triangular and 
parallel relation to each 
| other. The engine shaft 
6 has a single sliding spur 
| gear on it which, if moved 
jjj in one direction, meshes 

5 with a corresponding spur 

6 gear loose on the worm 
| shaft. If this latter gear 

is then engaged by a jaw 
clutch sliding on a square 
section of the worm shaft, 
high speed in a forward 
direction is transmitted 
direct from the engine to 
I the worm shaft. If the 
jjj gear on the engine shaft is 
| moved in the opposite di- 
% rection, it meshes with a 
. gear fixed on the reverse 
"1 shaft and which gives a 
" reverse movement to the 
car through another spur 
gear also on the reverse 
shaft in constant mesh with 
the gear previously men- 
tioned, on the worm shaft. 
For the forward drive, the 
jaw clutch is engaged again 
after the gears are meshed , 
The sliding spur gear on 


the engine shaft is thus used to convey motion from the engine to 
the worm shaft for either direction of car movement. 

Second speed forward is obtained by the same set of gears 
with the addition of another spur gear fixed on the opposite end 
of the reverse shaft and constantly in mesh with another spur 
gear loose on the worm shaft. This loose gear is connected for 
operation by shifting the jaw clutch in the opposite direction 
from that required for high speed. Motion is therefore trans- 
mitted from the engine shaft through a loose pinion on the worm 

Fig. 18. Interior of McKeen Motor Car 

shaft to the reverse shaft, then back through a pair of spur 
gears and jaw clutch to the worm shaft. It should be noted 
that when the car is in second speed the loose gear on the worm 
shaft is running at a different speed than the shaft itself. 

Low speed is obtained by moving a lever carrying a jaw clutch 
on which is mounted a third spur gear so as to pass beyond the face 
of the clutch and mesh with a small pinion on the reverse shaft. 

Second speed is obtained in rather a roundabout way through 
two pairs of spur gears, but as the low and second speeds are 
used only while the car is accelerating, this is not particularly 


disadvantageous, seeing that the design leads to very short and 
stiff shafts and few parts. 

Miscellaneous Details. The gasoline tank is carried about 
the center of the underframe. Fuel is supplied to the carburetor 
under pressure by a small air pump driven from the engine shaft. 
A water tank is placed over the engine and connected to the 
radiators which run longitudinally with the underframe, one on 
each side of the car body. The radiators are built up of fifteen 
1-inch tubes running side by side and connected with a brass 
bend. On the platform of each car is a sector below which are 
three stub levers projecting above the floor and having their ends 
recessed in V grooves to engage the removable hand levers, the 
odd shape of the recesses preventing anyone from trying to move 
the levers with canes, etc. One lever is connected to the throttle, 
the center is for the reverse and the third lever is for gear changes, 
with a neutral position between each gear shift. 

McKeen Motor Car. The McKeen motor ear, Figs. 17 and 
IS, is a self-contained motor car of uncommon design using a 
mechanical drive and is built by the McKeen Motor Car 
Company, of Omaha, Nebraska. The first car appeared in 1905 
and in its latest development the standard car is 55 to 70 feet 
in length, with end and side entrance doors. The designer has 
made the side of the car assist the floor beams in strengthening 
and stiffening the whole structure, resulting in the floor and sides 
being a composite girder. The location of the steps and doors is 
a subordinate consideration. The exterior of the car, with its 
pointed front end and sloping roof, gives the impression that it 
is suitable for high-speed service. This form of car was worked 
out from the Berlin-Zossen tests and is designed to overcome wind 
resistance to a large extent. The car is carried on double trucks, 
of which the front truck is the motor truck and the rear a stand- 
ard four-wheel truck with 33-inch wheels. Noticeable features of 
this car are the round windows which are dust proof, air proof, 
and waterproof. Acetylene gas is used for lighting and headlights. 

Engine. The motor truek, Fig. 19, has one driving axle with 
42-inch wheels to which the engine power is transmitted. The 
engine stands on the truck and swivels with it. *It is a vertical 
six-cylinder engine with a 10-inch bore and a 12-inch stroke in the 


200-horsepower units and a 12-inch bore and a 1 5-inch stroke in the 
300-horsepower units. The 200-horsepower engine has 4-inch valves 
of nickel steel and the cylinders are jacketed with J-inch copper. 
Transmission. The crankshaft is set at right angles to the 
longitudinal center line of the car and is made in two pieces 
which cany bolted between them a sprocket wheel which by means 
of a 5-inch Morse silent chain connects the crankshaft and the 
driving axle. This axle is clutched to the driving members, 

Fig. 19. Power Plant of McKcen Car 

which drive either directly or through a countershaft and spur- 
gear reduction. Two gear ratios are thus provided and the air- 
operated jaw clutch throws either one or the other of these sets 
of gears into operation, thus obtaining a slow speed and large 
tractive effort or a high speed and less pulling power. In either 
case the variation of the car speed is obtained entirely by throttle 
and spark regulation. The reduction gears are carried on the 
axle. With the low-speed gearing the full engine power is ordi- 
narily obtained at about 10 to 15 m.p.h., while with the high gear, 


or direct drive, the full engine power is obtained at the maximum 
running speed of the car. 

The control is entirely pneumatic and consists of several small 
levers governing the two-speed and reversing mechanism. The gears 
run constantly in mesh and are clutched in with special jaw clutches. 
Two of the levers control the carburetor and the ignition. 

Air Compressors. The engine is reversible, having sliding 
camshafts, and can be started in either direction by means of 
compressed air supplied from the brake reservoirs. These are 
kept charged by a small air compressor direct connected to the 
engine crankshaft. A separate air compressor, which is driven 
by a single-cylinder four-cycle gasoline engine, is installed in the 

engine room to provide air in case the air for starting is low, and 
for emergency use. The auxiliary compressor is of McKeen 
design and is so constructed that the piston of its gasoline engine 
does double duty. Not only is it the piston of the engine but 
also the compressor of the air on the down stroke. The same air 
is used for operating the brakes. An auxiliary valve motion on 
two of the main engine cylinders converts these cylinders into an 
air motor for starting, after which the engine again operates as 
a complete gas engine. 

Circulation. The cooling water is piped to the radiators, 
which are carried beneath the car body and are well protected 
from flying stones. In cold weather the water goes to the 
heating coils inside the car and furnishes adequate heat. In 



exceptionally cold weather the exhaust pipe may be used, in 
addition, if necessary. 

Hall-Scott Car. Drive Shaft The Hall-Scott car, Fig. 20, 
like the McKeen, is mechanically driven, with the difference that 
the engine is mounted in the front end of the car and is connected 
to the driving wheels on the rear truck by universal joints and a 
long drive shaft, through a gear case, Fig. 21, The drive is pat- 
terned after automobile 
practice. The first sec- 
tion of the long drive 
shaft is suspended be- 
tween two 7-inch I-beams 
running the entire length 
of the car. It is sup- 
ported in babbitted bear- 
ings which, in turn, are 
bolted to the I-beams. 
The second part of the 
shaft is supplied with 
universal joints at each 
end to take care of the 
vertical and lateral mo- 
tion of the truck. The 
shafting and universal 
joints are of extra heavy 

Connection between 

the engine and the drive 

Fig. 22. Trent view f Hni! s™tt. Motoi Cur. shafting is by means of 

Showing KadiHtur Potutiou D " 

a split steel band clutch, 
which is lined with a nonburn material, is located in the engine 
room, and is actuated by a steel foot lever. The clutch is arranged 
to release completely without drag and a positive lock is made 
when it is thrown in the holding position. 

Transmission. The power is transmitted to the wheels 
through an axle-mounted transmission arranged for four selective 
speeds in either direction without reversing the engine. The 
transmission is built up of three steel casings securely bolted 


and permits easy access to the driving gears. It is suspended from 
the rear truck axle in the same manner as an electric motor, with 
journal boxes cast integral with the steel casing and having removable 
journal brasses. The third point of the nose suspension rests on 
a hardened steel plate on the truck transom. The spur and bevel 
gears are machined from high-carbon cast steel and steel forgings, 
are heat treated, and are supported on roller bearings. All gears 
run in an oil bath in the case, which is oil and dust proof. 

IV 23. Six-cylinder, ISO-hp. Engine Installation in Ball-Scott Motor Car 

Circulation. In the 150-horsepower motor car, the radiators 
are carried on the front end of the car, Fig. 22. They are of the 
vertical tube type, are suspended on shock-absorbing springs, and 
have a large cooling fan direct driven from the engine. Circula- 
tion is by a centrifugal pump, but the radiator position also allows 
thermo-siphon circulation, if required. 

Control. The control levers are all located in the engine room, 
Fig. 23, the four speeds allowing for large flexibility of control for 
handling switching, hauling trailers over grades, and doing other 
heavy work. At the same time a high-gear ratio is provided so 
that the car may be operated at high speed on level tangent track. 


New Era Car. The New Era motor car designed for the: 
Railway Contracting and Equipment Company of Chicago jj, 
radically different from the usual gasoline mechanical-drive cars inr 
that each truck contains a complete power plant so arranged tha| 
any number of cars in a train provided with motor trucks may b& 
simultaneously controlled and operated through a train line by A3 
single operator from any car. These trucks, Fig. 24, may bft 
arranged to be applied to any car and consist of an all-steely 
standard M.C.B. truck with a 6-foot 6-inch wheel base and a foup-> : 
cylinder four-cycle V type gasoline engine, having a 6$-inch 
cylinder bore and a 7f -inch stroke and being capable of develop- 
ing 120 horsepower at 1000 r.p.m. All the mechanism is readily; 
accessible by removing the cover plates and may be inspected from: 
the car body by removing the trap doors. 

Engine. Special attention had to be given to the design of 
the engine and the transmission, Figs. 25 and 26, in order to place 
them within the space available in a standard truck with the' 
above wheel base and to provide accessibility and ample propor- 
tions. No part of the engine or the transmission projects above 
the wheel tread. The crankshaft, Fig. 25, is of ample size and is- 
mounted on extra large self-aligning ball bearings in order to keep', 
the over-all length of the engine within the prescribed limits. The; 
camshaft is extra heavy and projects at the rear to drive a two-i 
cylinder air-cooled air compressor having a 4J-inch bore and a 3J-3 
inch stroke and furnishing 30 cubic feet of air per minute at 90; 
pounds gage pressure. The valves are of tungsten steel and are 
actuated by means of rocker arms. Starting is by means of a 30- 
volt electric motor and i3 controlled by the master control lever. 
At water Kent automatic-advance ignition and water and oil pumps 
are located conveniently for adjustment and cleaning. The 
exhaust is piped to two mufflers directly beneath the engine, one ; 
muffler for each two cylinders. The carburetor is of the float-?* 
feed type and is located as close as possible to the inlet valves^ 
Forced and splash lubrication are employed. ■?- 

Transmission-. The drive shaft is coupled direct to thej* 
engine shaft, the coupling being shown at the right in Fig. 27. It£ 
drives a jackshaft through a pair of . bevel gears, which are * 
arranged so that, by means of a steel four-jawed clutch, Fig. 26»1 



the jackahaft may be driven in either direction, thus providing 
means for reversing the car direction without reversing the engine. 
From the jackshaft a drive is taken off from each end ; at one end 
the gear ratio is 5 to 1 and at the other it is 1 to 1, except in 
locomotive equipment when the final ratio is 2.4 to 1. Individual 
single dry disc clutches are used on the drives and are operated 

Both pairs of wheels are driven, since they drive each other 
by means of bevel gears on each axle, and they are connected 
together through a shaft and a universal joint to permit lateral 
and vertical movement. The transmission gears throughout are 
either spiral cut bevels or herringbone. All gears and clutches are 
thoroughly encased in oil-proof and dust-proof casings. 

The transmission casing together with the engine and the air 
compressor are carried on a three-point suspension. By means of 
its two bearings On the axle the transmission casing at one end 
forms two points of the suspension, while the longitudinal mem- 
bers, which support the engine and the air compressor, are con- 
nected together at the rear end of the truck and form at this 
point the third point of the suspension. This suspension method 
relieves the engine and mechanism from all strains due to vertical 
and lateral motion of the truck frame. 

Light, Fuel, and Circulation. A drive shaft is taken from the 
bevel drive on the rear axle of each truck, and the axle lighting 
generator is driven by this shaft and a universal joint. It may be 
driven from either truck, according to which truck is at the gen- 
erator end of the car. This generator charges a 300-ampere-hour 
storage battery, which is used for lighting the car and operating 
the control circuits. Fuel is supplied to the carburetor through 
a f-inch locomotive-type swing joint. Pipes on the ear body 
conduct the cooling water to the radiators by means of swing joints 
of the same kind as on the carburetor but of a larger size. 

Control. The control system is electro-pneumatic and is 
operated from the current of the storage battery. A train line of 
twelve wires is provided and is fitted with a jumper, so that any 
number of motor cars may be coupled in a train and operated 
simultaneously. A small master controller in the cab of the car or 
locomotive is the only lever needed for complete operation. Only 


one lever is used, but it includes an auxiliary lever for speed 
changes. The carburetor is controlled through the variation of 
the speed of a small 30-volt electric motor driving a small gov- 
ernor which is balanced and operates against a graduated spring; 
thus any number of carburetors may, after being set, be caused to 
open simultaneously and in unison. The clutches are provided 
with electrically operated air valves and are graduated for a given 
rate of acceleration. 

Operation. Operation of the car is as follows: Placing the 
controller handle on the first notch cuts in the electric starting 
motor and the ignition; advancing the controller handle to any 
other notch speeds up the engine accordingly by opening the 
butterfly valve. On the end of the controller handle is a button, 
which may be depressed to two positions. Depressing this button 
to the first position operates the electromagnet that admits air to 
the low-speed clutch, and this, in turn, clutches in the low-speed 
gears. This electromagnet air valve, as before stated, is graduated 
to admit air to the clutch-operating mechanism at a rate corre- 
sponding to a given rate of acceleration. Depressing the button to 
its farther position both breaks the circuit of this electromagnet, 
which instantly releases the low-speed clutch, and at the same 
time connects in the electromagnet which operates the high-speed 
clutch — and which is graduated like the other for a given rate of 
acceleration. An engineer rapidly learns when to depress this 
button for change-speed gears, and even if he does not always do 
it at the same time, no harm can result and the engagement of 
the clutches takes place correctly. 

On releasing the button, the reverse action takes place and 
the low gear may be dropped in again or the transmission entirely 
released. Also, reversing the movement of the controller handle 
slows the engine down or shuts it off entirely. Any combination 
of engine speed and gear ratios may be had through the operation 
of this handle and button. To reverse the direction of car travel, 
a small lever on the master controller case is moved, which 
operates the reversing clutch on the jackshaft through an electro- 
magnet-operated air cylinder. 

Either or both engines under a car may be operated, and if 
one is operating, the other may be cut in at any time. 


Foreign Can 
Drake Automotive. The gasoline-electric car may be briefly 
described a9 an interurban trolley car with the trolley removed 

Fig. 28. Gasoline-Electric Automotrice "Dracar" 

and a power plant — consisting of an electric generator direct- 
connected to and driven by a multiple-cylinder gasoline engine — 
installed in the forward part of the car. The fundamental differ- 
ence between the gas-mechanical 
drive cars and the gas-electric cars is 
that in the latter the engine drives an 
electric generator and power is trans- 
mitted electrically to the motors 
geared to the axles instead of the 
other method — that of the engine 
being direct-connected by mechan- 
ical gearing to the axles. The Drake 
Automotrice, Figs. 28 and 29, is 
taken as representative of the gas- 
electric type. Some of these cars 
have been built in the United States 
and put in operation on the Mis- 
souri, Oklahoma, and Gulf Railway, ^■ M -s£Z t /pow'c™ ™ trto ' 
while their most extensive use is on 

the Arad-Csanad Railway in Hungary, which service began in 1905. 
The generator is a 500-volt machine and the energy is conducted 
from the power group to the control system, comprising series- 
parallel connections of the motors, Fig. 30, with field regulation 



and a variable carburetor control , or 
throttle. The series-parallel control 
b essentially the same as that used 
in electric interurban service. The 
contactors are arranged for ten steps 
of field resistance, which are incor- 
porated in the series-parallel sections 
of the controller. 

Engine. The engine is designed 
for speeds of from 900 to 1000 r.p.m. 
and is built in two sizes, 90 and 140 
horsepower. The control levers are 
arranged to open and close the gas 

admission to the engine mechanically c 

and for wide variations of accelera- | 

tion and speeds. The car is provided £ 

with duplicate controllers permitting jj 

operation from either end of the car. " 

The motors are mounted on the for- >: 

ward trucks, as is the usual practice, « 

and are of the standard interurban ti 

type. J 

The engine jackets are supplied * 

with cooling water circulated by a S 

positive-driven geared pump, pro- & 

pelled by the camshaft. The cooling 
is by a copper tube radiator placed 
on the roof of the car. In winter 
this cooling water is used for heating 
purposes. The engine is started by 
cranking, just as in an automobile, 
the compression being relieved mo- 
mentarily during starting. 

Pieper System. The Pieper sys- 
tem (French), Figs. 31 and 32, con- 
sists of an internal-combustion engine 
corresponding to the power to be 
developed; a generator which is 



mounted direct on the shaft of the flywheel of the engine and which 
functions either as a generator or a motor at different speeds by 
regulation of the excitation; and a storage battery. 

'Storage Battery. The storage battery furnishes additional 
energy for the generator when the engine is insufficient and is 
recharged from the generator when excess power is generated in 
slowing down or descending a grade. This double action is 
obtained in the following manner: when the car is on an up grade, 
the engine is consequently slowed down and the voltage of the 
generator drops below that of the battery, which causes the cur- 
rent to flow from the battery to the generator, an operation called 
the "buffer"; similarly, on a down grade, the engine speed is 
accelerated and the generator voltage rises above the battery 
voltage, thereby recharging the battery. The "buffer" and the 
recharge occur automatically. The work of the battery in the 
Pieper cars is essentially different from that of batteries in ordi- 
nary traction service. In other words, in traction cars the bat- 
teries are required to furnish all the energy necessary to pull the 
train, which means a constant drain at almost full capacity, 
while in the Pieper system "buffer" battery furnishes only a 
part of the energy. Consequently, the Pieper battery need not be 
of large capacity and requires only a little space. This does away 
with the inconvenient weight of the ordinary batteries. The bat- 
tery used in this system should not be larger than necessary, as 
the principle of the system consists in having the engine itself 
furnish the average power required. 

Regulator. The admission of gas to the engine is controlled 
through a regulator, which consists of a double-wound solenoid 
with a soft-iron core and which actuates the butterfly valve of the 
carburetor. This regulator increases or diminishes the flow of the 
gases following the flow of the charging or discharging current of 
the battery in such a manner that, for example, when on a grade 
— in which case the engine requires more fuel — the regulator opens 
the throttle and when on a down grade, the regulator automati- 
cally closes the valve, thus giving gas to the engine only as required. 

Control. The car can be operated from either platform by a 
controller similar to those used on the ordinary electric trolley car. 
A small handle serves to start the engine, forward or reverse, by 


the generator acting as a motor. After the engine is set going, the 
operator moves the large controller around, this giving a progressive 
flow of current to the magnetic fields of the motors and starting 
the car. The speed is then increased by progressive elimination of 
the resistance inserted in the field circuit of the generator. When 
slowing down or stopping, the large controller handle is moved in 
the opposite direction and the excitation of the generator is 
gradually increased, charging the battery through the inertia effect 
of the car. When the handle is on the zero position, the trans- 
mission is neutral, and when moved farther, it finally actuates a 
magnetic or an air brake as the case may be. This brake serves 
to block the wheels only during the time of full stop, as the slow- 
ing down braking is accomplished by the process of recharging the 
battery. In consequence, the use of the brake shoes is minimized. 

In the operation of the car, the "buffer," the recharge, the 
admission of gas, driving the car, and speed regulation are auto- 
matic; all the operator has to do is to maintain the speed of the 
car through the controller and finally recharge the battery. 

Miscellaneous Detaih. Heat is obtained by means of the cir- 
culating water from the engine and can easily be regulated to the 
proper temperature. The motor car and the trailing coaches are 
lighted by means of incandescent lamps, current from the buttery 
circuit being used. Double-truck cars weigh from 20 to 22 tons, 
are equipped with a four-cylinder 90-horsepower engine and a bat- 
tery of sixty elements weighing about 1800 kilograms (3960 
pounds), and have a seating capacity of twenty-five to thirty. A 
speed of 50 m.p.h. on level tangent track has been obtained. A 
larger equipment has a six-cylinder 150-horsepower engine and two 
generators with 120 elements in the battery and is capable of pull- 
ing two trailers. These cars were in service on the Belgian State 
Railways and the de Saint-Germain a Poissy line. This car is 
similar to the Strang described on page 59, though it is now obso- 
lete owing to the fact that the generator current and voltage may 
be regulated in such a manner as to produce regulation of the 
kind here described without the use of a storage battery. 

German Cars. The Prussian State Railways were among the 
first to use self-contained railway motor cars. Starting with 
steam cars, they later used storage batteries and finally adopted 



the gas motor. The steam car presented so ' many difficulties and 
drawbacks that continual experiment was necessary and no sat- 
isfactory service obtained. Storage batteries proved satisfactory 
with regard to simplicity in operation and cleanliness but increased 
the cost of operation, as did the necessary charging stations. 
These facts, together with the great weight of the batteries, lim- 
ited the radius of operation. In the five years from 1908 to 1913 
the Prussian State Railways installed gas-electric cars with Ward- , 
Leonard control. This control permits changes of the current 
through a shunt generator by changing the exciting field, thus using 
the maximum engine power as needed. This regulation of the cur- 

Fis. 34, Gas-Electric Power Plant for Deuti Car V 

rent for speed changes is very easy, whereas the storage battery con- 9 
trol is more complicated, owing to the extra heavy flow of current. ^ 

General Data. Following is a description of the system on the - " 
Bentschen-Posen section of the Beriin-Posen Railroad, which has 
been in operation since the middle of 1911. The cars were fur- 
nished by the Gasmotoren Fabrick Deutz (G.F.D.), the Allge- 
meine Elektrizitats Gesellschaft (A.E.G.), and the Neuen Auto* 
mobil Gesellschaft (N.A.G.). 

The latest Prussian Railway gas-electric motor cars, Fig. 33, 
have all the machinery outside the car body and under the oper- 
ator's cab, which eliminates a number of difficulties encountered 


with the usual methods. The gas engine and accessories, includ- 
ing the gas tank, are placed entirely on the truck and under a 
hood which can be slid forward easily; the exhaust fumes are led 
out toward the roof; and the whole car body can be insulated so 
as to be fire and odor proof. The vibration of the engine and the 
machinery is minimized through the spring suspension of the 
truck; and since the power plant is outside the car, greater utiliza- 
tion of the interior of the car is possible. 

The engine is equipped with an air starter fed from the brake 
reservoirs, the air compressor being driven by the gas engine. To 

Tig. 35. Gu-Electric Power Plant on N.A.G. Car 

reduce the engine vibration while coasting or at a stop, the engine 
speed, whieh is automatically controlled through the controller 
lever, is brought down from 700 to 250 r.p.m. This effects a con- 
siderable saving in fuel, taking into account slow downs and stops. 
The rigid wheel base of the trucks depends upon the type of 
engine. The G.F.D., Fig. 34, is an early type V engine with six 
cylinders, which on account of its minimum length permits a 
wheel base of 3.8 meters (12 feet 5.61 inches), and a symmetrical 
arrangement of the truck. The N.A.G. engine, however, is a 
four cylinder vertical type, Figs. 35, 36, and 37, which increases 
the wheel base to 4.25 meters (13 feet 11.32 inches), and causes 


the bolster to be set off center 255 millimeters (10.04 inches). 
Observations showed little difference in these types while traveling 

Fig. 36. Power Plant on N.A.G. Cur, Showing Location of Generator 

at high speed, but the uniformity of the speed of the six-cylinder 
engine should not be overlooked, especially at low engine speeds. 

Electric Motor Truck on N.A.G. C 

G.F.D. Engine. The G.F.D. engine is rated at 100 horse- 
power at 700 r.p.m. and can develop 150 horsepower without 



difficulty. The cylinders have separate bolted-on valve caps, 
Fig. 38, and the valves are inclined uniformly toward the cylinder 
axis, thus forming a ball-shaped compression chamber. The 
cylinders are inclined at a 60-degree angle and are bolted on in 
two rows to the upper part of the crankcase. The lower part of 
the crankcase is bolted on and is removable for inspection of the 
connecting rods and crankshaft bearings. The three throws of the 
crankshaft are 180 degrees apart and each throw takes two con- 
necting rods, the crankshaft having four bearings. 

Both valves of each cylinder are actuated through a common 
bell crank A by means of the cams B. The push rods C are 
pulled toward the camshaft by the spring I) to open the intake 
valve and pushed outward by the cams to open the exhaust 
valves. The cylinders of one side of the engine are provided with 
an auxiliary cam set, which controls the air governor, consisting 
of an air compressor valve F, actuated through a special rod E, 
that opens once for each revolution of the engine. To the crank 
rod operating this rod, Fig. 38, is connected an attachment for 
varying the density of the mixture on the other side of the engine. 
When started by air, the gas engine really is two machines run- 
ning simultaneously, one side as a two-cycle air motor and the 
other side as a four-cycle gas engine; whereas, in general practice, 
the fuel is admitted to the engine only after the air auxiliary is 
shut off. This method increases the certainty of the explosions. 
To guard against exceeding the correct revolutions per minute, a 
governor is fitted to the vertical shaft, it being driven from the 
end of the camshaft and controlling the throttle valve on the 
carburetor. An eccentric pin on the large governor crank is, after 
changing from light to tractive load, so operated by an electric 
motor K that the previous position of the governor causes an 
increased opening of the throttle valve. In this way the engine 
increases its speed to 700 r.p.m. before it can pick up any more 

The location of the other equipment is governed by the desire 
to utilize the space to the best advantage and, therefore, the 
exhaust and the intake pipes are set between the cylinders where 
they are joined in a cooling housing. This arrangement brings 
about a simultaneous cooling of the exhaust gases and a pre- 


heating of the fuel gas. A water-circulating pump and a high- 
tension magneto are located on each side of the vertical shaft. 
The magnetos are used only in case of an emergency, the current 
for the spark being taken from the storage battery, which also 
supplies current for other uses. The air compressor is mounted 
on the front end of the camshaft and feeds two reservoirs of 400 
liters each (14fc cubic feet) at a pressure of about 90 pounds per 
square inch. 

A high-pressure pump forces oil to ah* bearings, while the 
cylinder walls are lubricated by separate grease cups. The exhaust 
and cooling pipes are connected to the car body through flexible 
joints and lead to the roof. Moreover, the cooling pipes may be 
connected to the heating coils in the car by the proper operation 
of valves. An electric fan sucks the air through the radiators and 
forces it out again, the fan being independent of the car speed. 
The remaining space is used for a gas tank, in which the fuel is 
kept under the protection of some neutral gas to prevent explo- 
sion. The gas is supplied from a steel tank through a low-pressure 
valve, which is arranged so that the fuel can flow out only at the 
top and at the proper mixture. 

N.A.G. Engine. The N.A.G. engine, Figs. 35, 36, and 39, 
differs from the G.F.D. engine in the arrangement of the cylinders 
and some of the minor details. It has four cylinders in a row, 
each of 196 millimeters (7.72 inches) diameter and 250 millimeters 
(9.84 inches) stroke; possesses a large ratio (1.325 as against 1.06 
in the G.F.D. engine) ; and will develop 120 to 125 horsepower at 
700 r.p.m. The construction of the engine is along the same lines 
as that of the Deutz. The cylinders are cast in pairs; have 
interchangeable valves; are of the T-head type, which gives the 
engine a neat and simple appearance; and are mounted on the 
upper half of the crankcase, which is bolted to the truck frame. 
The crankshaft bearings are also mounted in the upper half of the 
crankcase; the lower half, which is used for an oil reservoir, is 
made of aluminum and is demountable. 

The power for driving the various appliances of the N.A.G. 
engine is taken from the front end, the speed regulator being 
arranged similarly to that of the G.F.D. engine and being elec- 
trically controlled. The water pump and the high-tension magneto 




are operated from the lower end of the regulator shaft, Fig. 39, 
while the air compressor is driven from the opposite camshaft. 
Ordinarily, the engine is started by air, and for this purpose there 
ia a housing A, Fig. 40, over the center of the camshaft in which 
are mounted four inlet, or distributing, valves B. Two cams 
actuate two levers C shaped like an L, and through the upper end 
of which runs the shaft D, which lifts the levers off the cams as 
soon as the engine starts to run, whereby the influx of air is 
automatically cut off. As a rule, the engine has to be stopped at 
a certain place in order to start properly, and unless this is done, 
it has to be turned over by hand. The air flows through the 

Fig. 40. Details of Valves (or Starting N.A.G. Engine by Compressed Air 

carburetor until the explosions take place and then it is auto- 
matically cut off. 

Fuel. Both the N.A.G. and the G.F.D. engines run on 
benzol, which is advantageous owing to its low imflammability. 
The danger of its freezing if the temperature is below zero is done 
away with by means of a heating encasement, while for emergency 
a certain amount of gasoline is carried, principally to start the 
engine in cold weather. Sufficient fuel is carried for 200 miles, 
which means that the tank has to be filled only once daily. 

Electrical Equipment. The electrical equipment is similar on 
both the N.A.G. and the G.F.D. cars, each having the engine 


direct connected to shunt generators which develop 66 kilowatts, 
300 volts at 700 r.p.m. and which can be loaded for 30 hours with 
530 amperes. The generators are enclosed and provided with a 
ventilated armature which is built into the trucks and connected to 
2.5 kilowatt exciters of 70 volts, in the circuit of which is cut the 
necessary resistance for regulating the voltage and the amperage 
of the generators. 

In the control of the car equipped with the A.E.G. engine, 
Fig. 41, there are three circuits. The main circuit connects the 
main generator A to the main generator field Y, the magnetic coil 
of the full-load release K, the overload contact L, and the two 
permanently connected and grounded car motors H. In the ex- 
citing circuit is included the exciter generator C, the shunt winding 
B of the main generator, and the starting resistances M in the 
controller. The auxiliary circuit includes a storage battery X of 
20 cells with a 74-ampere rating, .the full-load release contactor K, 
the magnetic coil of the overload relay L, and the push button N 
of the controller. 

The battery serves to supply current for lighting and other 
needs of the car while standing or at very low speeds. It is 
grounded at one end and the other end is connected through the ■ 
release contactor T with the positive terminal of the exciter. As 
the negative terminal of the exciter is also grounded, the discharg- 
ing circuit is closed as soon as the voltage of the exciter is high 
enough to close the release contactor, which occurs as soon as the 
engine develops a speed of 700 r.p.m. The exciter then charges 
the battery and supplies current for other needs. 

Control. During forward travel, the operator puts the shunt 
connector button N of the controller in the proper position by 
means of the controller handle and thus obtains the necessary con- 
nection to the motors for the required speed. At the same time 
the controller which controls the overload and signal circuits is 
put on "trip." By pushing the button JV, the battery circuit 
closes the magnetic brake coil. By moving the controller handle 
to the first position, the contactor L is closed, and at the other 
positions a resistance coil is cut into the contactor circuit. Id the 
first position of the controller handle the battery starts the 
auxiliary motor on the engine regulator, Fig. 41, &nd the engine 



speeds up to 700 r.p.m. The teeth on the worm gear are so cut 
that, at the proper shaft speed, the motor drive is automatically 
cut out. 

With the increase in speed of the engine, the exciter reaches 
its full voltage. In the first position the whole resistance is cut in 
on the field of the generator, which allows the motors to run at 
low voltage but high ampere load, thus giving the greatest pull. 
In the generator A, Fig. 41, current flows through the full-load 
contactor K and the overload release L to the field of both motors 







Fig. 41. Controls.: 

H and thence to ground. In the other controller positions the 
resistance is gradually cut out, increasing the motor voltage to 
300. The graduation of the voltage is so worked out that it cor- 
responds with the revolutions per minute and the speed of the car, 
and therefore the control losses are limited to those of shifting. 
When the operator releases the handle M, the push button N 
immediately breaks the overload contact, cutting out both car 
motors and setting the solenoid brake. The handle, once released 
during the trip, must be brought back to the neutral position to 
close the overload contact by short-circuiting the overload relay. 



The Bergmann Elektrizitats Untemehmungen E.A.G. use a 
new control system, Fig. 42, whereby the exciter is eliminated. 
The field resistance of the generator is divided into two parts; 
field 1 is connected to the battery, and field £ is connected to the 
controller. After starting, when the handle is on the first point, it 
closes the circuit of field 1 and, at the same time, the engine 
speed increases as the car is set in motion. After the voltage 
of the generator reaches a certain point, the handle is moved to 
the second point and the field resistance 2 is inserted, increasing the 
excitation field of the generator. This releases the battery, in 
which the voltage in field 2 cannot increase, and, through further 
elimination of resistance, the voltage of the generator and the 
speed of the car increase and the battery is still further relieved 
until the current in field 2 is as large as in field /. At this point 
the controller connects both fields. Further increase of current 
in field 2 serves to charge the battery, etc. This arrangement has 
the advantage that the battery (an Edison) is used to furnish 
energy on the first stage of the trip and when the engine is run- 
ning light, and otherwise serving to maintain a minimum voltage 
of the generator. 

Driving Motors. On the rear trucks, Fig. 37, are mounted the 
two driving motors, which are entirely enclosed in dust-proof steel 
housings, driving the axles through a gear reduction of 1 to 4.3125. 
These motors are rated at 82 horsepower at 300 volts, 230 amperes, 
and 600 r.p.m., and on level tangent track they have driven the 
car at a rate of 45 m.p.h. 

De Dion Bouton Car. The Hungarian Government adopted 
the De Dion Bouton gas-electric motor cars, Fig. 43, in 1906 for 
service on the Arad-Csanad and other railways, placing an order 
first for 50 and then following it up with a repeat order of 150, 
making a total of 200 at that time. The position of the generat- 
ing machinery in the De Dion Bouton car may easily be seen 
in Fig. 44. It is arranged crosswise at the end of the car and 
supported on a separate base plate. The motive power is a four- 
cylinder four-cycle vertical internal-combustion engine (burning 
gasoline in 1906), and it is direct connected to a generator pro- 
ducing current at 550 volts. The equipment was designed and 
biu'lt for this high voltage in order to permit these cars to operate 


over lines that were electrified and in conjunction with electric 
cars. Later the electric lines were abandoned or rather dismantled 
and the gas-electric motor car used entirely, owing to the fact that 
operating costs were lower and business increased. The cab con- 
tains the necessary switches and the controller as well as the engine 
accessories. In the new cars, the engine is placed horizontally instead 
of transversely as here shown, the latter position having been adopted 
in equipping the cars in service as space in them was limited. 

The gas engine part of the equipment includes the fuel tank 
and also the radiators, which are mounted under the car. ' In 
winter the cylinder cooling water is used for heating the car before 
being sent through the radiator. The main fuel tank is placed 
over the engine and suspended from the roof, a hand pump being 

Fig. 43. De Dion Bouton Gae-Electric Motor Car 

carried as part of the equipment for pumping the fuel into this 
tank from the outside. 

Electrical Equipment. The current from the generator is led 
to a series-parallel controller and thence to the two electric motors, 
one geared to each axle, the cars being of the four-wheel type so 
commonly used in Europe. The levers for operating the gas 
engine are grouped beside the controller, so that the engine igni- 
tion advance, throttle valve, etc. are all at the operator's hand. 
The motors have two salient and two consequent poles and the 
armatures are of the toothed-drum type. .The commutators are 
mica insulated and thoroughly protected from the dirt and the 
damp. The whole machine is suspended from the frame of the 
car by a rod with spring stays. The gearing is by means of 


sprockets and chains which are enclosed in a dust-proof and dirt- 
proof steel casing, the sprockets running in oil. Electric braking 
can be employed through the agency of the controller and there is 
also an air brake supplied by an axle-driven compressor. At all 
speeds of the car the engine is run at normal speed. 

Performance. Tests were made at Arad, Hungary, with a car 
'weighing IS tons and 
having a seating capacity 
of forty. There were in 
the engine room two 
coupled engines and gen- 
erators of 20 kilowatts 
each, but later a single 
set of 50 kilowatts was 
substituted. In the last 
five trials, SO miles was 
covered each time and 2 
miles of this was on grade, 
The engine worked for 
seventy minutes at stops 
and before starting; it 
was worked before start- 
ing in order to warm up 
the car by means of the 
engine jacket water, 
since the tests were made 
in midwinter. 

..... ,. . Fig. 44. Power Plant of Do Dion Bouton Motor Car 

It is interesting to 
note that the De Dion Bouton car was one of the earliest used in 
numbers and that railroads in European countries began operating 
self-contained railway motor cars before those in the United States. 
One of the factors that brought about the use of these cars was 
the need of a more economical operation, and the results are 
shown by the fact that these roads still operate such cars, 

American Cars 
Strang Car. The Strang car, now obsolete, Fig. 45, had a 
peculiar deck. Although it appeared to be of the usual steam 


monitor type, it was in real- 
ity of the rounded, or "turtle 
back," type. The part above 
the deck or between the sides 
of the monitor was open and 
carried the radiators, expos- 
ing them to a free circulation 
of air. On the interior, the 
deck sash was arranged as a 
dormer window and avoided 
the tunnel-like effect of the 
regular "turtle back" deck. 
g The Strang system con- 

2 sisted of a gasoline engine, 
■3 electric generator, storage 
s battery, electric motors, and 
g controlling devices so com- 
g bined as to constitute a com- 
■g plete individual system. It 
I is evident, Figs. 46 and 47, 
J that the gas engine and the 
9 electric generator were 
| coupled together on a com- 
n mon base plate, forming a 
.» self-contained generating 
unit. Directly from the 
brushes of the generator, 
main wires led to a controller 
of the series-parallel type. 
From the controller, wires led 
to the electric motors hung 
directly on the axles of the 
truck according to standard 
electric railway practice. The 
wires between the generator 
and controller were connected 
in multiple to a storage bat- 
tery, and in one of the main 



wires between the battery and the generator was a small rheostat 
which waa used for temporarily converting the generator into a 
motor for starting the engine. The battery was meant to serve as 

PCI* tlr 

£0gp3 1 



i m J. jj 



f T vi 


t5 "\ 

Fig. 40. Diagram 

ts of Strang Motor Car 

an auxiliary to furnish extra power in starting and accelerating, 
but later practice has taught that the generator fields may be con- 
trolled in such a manner as to eliminate the storage battery, thus 
saving the cost of its installation and operation. 

The V-type six-cylinder four-cycle engine, Fig. 47, had a 
lOJ-inch bore, a 9-inch stroke, and a continuous rating of 150 
horsepower at 425 r.p.m. and was direct connected to an 85-kilo- 
watt, 250- volt direct-current shunt- wound interpole generator. 
On the forward trucks were two 100-horsepower 250-volt series- 
wound, interpole motors. 
The storage battery was 
composed of 112 cells 
and was of 300-ampere- 
hour capacity. The Gen- 
eral Electric type M 
control system was used 
and Westinghouse auto- 
matic air brakes were 
employed. The cooling 
and heating system con- 
sisted of an electrically „„„..,„ 

" Fig. 47. Engine and Generator Unit of Strut Motor Car 

driven centrifugal pump, 

which circulated water through radiators on the roof and, when 

desired, through the heating coils in the car. 

General Electric Car. The most extensive builder of the 
electrically driven type of internal-combustion engine cars has 


been the General Electric Company, 
of Schenectady, New York, which 
began its development of gas-electric 
cars in 1908 with the construction of 
the first car for the Delaware and 
Hudson Railroad. This was a stand- 
ard railway car built by the Barney & 
Smith Car Company and had stand- 
ard railroad trucks. The engine for 
■5 the first car was purchased in England, 
| as there was no suitable engine built 
■" in the United States. The electrical 
I equipment was built by the General 
| Electric Company and proportioned 
J on the results of previous experience 

* with heavy railroad equipments. After 
3 the first car had been operated 5000 
5 miles, a second car was constructed, 

* the entire equipment of which was 
J built in the United States and from 
£ which the present General Electric 
I designs have been evolved. The car 
■ bodies, Fig. 48, are built of all steel 
| and designed for a combination of 
? strength and lightness. The front end 
a is rounded to reduce wind resistance 
S when operating at high speeds, and 
■g either a center or end entrance is sup- 
plied to meet traffic requirements. 
The cars are built in lengths from 40 
to 70 feet over all and .weigh from 
40 to 50 tons. 

The power plant, Fig. 49, is 
located in the engine room at the 
front end of the car and consists of 
an eight-cylinder V-type four-cycle 
gasoline engine direct connected to a 
100-kilowatt generator and running 


n [■' WHriaru Jtililruild MutW C«I 


at 550 r.p.m. This generator is built essentially to cany a wide 
range of output in current and voltage, so that the output may be 
varied from 400 amperes at 250 volts to 125 amperes at 800 volts. 
Motor Truck. The trucks are of the equalizer type with swing 
bolster and are suitable for high speeds. One of these trucks is 
the motor truck, which is designed to carry two electric driving 
motors. This truck is placed under the front end of the car and 
carries the weight of the engine-room equipment in addition to 
the weight of the motors. In this case, 60 per cent of the entire 
weight of the car is carried on the driving wheels. In some cases, 
however, the motor truck is 
placed at the rear of the car under 
the passenger compartment and 
then carries only about 40 per 
cent of the weight. The motor 
truck is equipped with two Gen- 
eral Electric motors, No. 205, of 
100 horsepower each. This motor 
is a commutating-pole type and 
is suitable for a wide variation in 
operating voltage. The gearing 
is specially selected for this ser- 
vice; the ratio is low enough so 
that the maximum car speed will 
Rg. so. Con g^f t ^ d St i; I ^ s ) ^ r 8an F ™ nc ' sto not develop an excessive rotative 
speed of the armatures and also 
high enough to obtain the requisite starting effort without imposing 
excessive overloads on the motors. 

Control. The cars are designed for single-end operation only. 
The engineer's seat is located at the right-hand front window in 
the engine room. Fig. 50, and the controller and throttle valve 
handles are placed directly in front of him. The controller is a 
combination of engine and generator controls, with the different 
levers placed vertically above each other and operating about the 
same center line. The highest of the levers is the throttle lever, 
which controls the supply of gasoline to the engine and, conse- 
quently, the speed and power. Directly beneath this is the 
electric control lever, which on the first part of its range 


the two motors in series. Successive steps then raise the 
generator voltage from 250 on the first step to about 700 volts on 
the seventh step. In passing into the next step of the controller, 
the voltage is reduced to about 250 and at the same time the 
connection between the motors is changed, putting them in mul- 
tiple with each other. On the remaining steps the two motors are 
running in multiple; the generator current is divided between them 
and each is actuated by the full generator voltage. This voltage is 
raised in successive steps up to the maximum of about 800 volts on 
the thirteenth step. Two final steps are provided, in addition to 
those just mentioned, and they are suitable for particularly high 
speeds on level tangent track with shunted motors. 

The engine is started by admitting air to the cylinders, which 
is done automatically on the first opening of the throttle. As 
soon as the engine turns over and the first charge of gasoline is 
exploded in the cylinder, the air for starting is automatically shut 
off. The air reservoirs are charged by an air compressor which is 
driven from the main crank of the engine and which also furnishes 
air for the brakes and the whistle. A small independent engine- 
generator set is furnished and supplies current for lighting the car. 
It is also connected to an auxiliary air compressor, which, in case 
the pressure in the main reservoirs is low, may be used to charge 
them again, for example, if the car has been standing for some 
time and it is desired to start the main engine. 

Ewbank Car. The Ewbank car, Figs. 51 and 52, is built by 
the Ewbank Electric Transmission Company, of Portland, Oregon, 
and is of the same general type as the General Electric Company's 
cars. It was put in demonstrating operation on railroads in the 
West in 1914, particularly on the Spokane, Portland, and Seattle 
Railroad. The power plant consists of a 350-horsepower gas engine 
direct connected to a direct-current generator and arranged to start 
on gasoline and then to run on distillate. The trucks are each pro- 
vided with two 75-horsepower motors, giving traction to all wheels. 
In general, the Ewbank is similar to other gas-electric cars. 

Daimler Car. Dynamolor Equipment. The designer of the 
Daimler car first brought out an equipment in which the engine 




power was transmitted 
to the wheels through 
the armature of a direct- 
current machine capable 
of acting as a generator 
or a motor, Fig. 53. A 
storage battery was con- 
nected across the arma- 
ture so that as long as 
the voltage of the gener- 
ator terminals exceeded 
3 the potential difference 
| across the battery, the 
£ energy in excess of that 
S required to propel the 
| car was used to charge 

1 the battery. When, 

2 however, the torque re- 
c quired to move the car 
I exceeded that which the 
E engine was developing 
-g at that speed, the speed 

iof the engine was re- 
duced and the storage 
battery discharged 
S through the armature of 
5 the electrical machine, 
which, for the time 
being, was converted 
into a motor and assisted 
the engine. As soon as 
the car attained engine 
speed, the electrical ma- 
chine again became a 
generator, the engine 
taking the full load and 
the generator charging 
the batteries again. 


On account of the dual function of this machine it was called a 

At first sight this system would appear to be the complete 
solution to the vexed question of transmission. A perfectly smooth 
variation was attained and at the highest speeds the engine torque 
was transmitted to the wheels with no more loss than in the case 
of a purely mechanical drive with the so-called direct, or high- 
speed, drive. By means of the dynamotor the engine was started 
in either direction. The storage battery was also used for light- 
ing the car and other auxiliary purposes. The rheostat in the 
dynamo field circuit provided speed control and the throttle lever 
was used in the ordinary way. In the practical working of this 
system the storage battery had to receive constant attention, 
owing to the violent alternations of the direction and value of the 
current, and the main danger lay in the excessive charging cur- 
rents. Moreover, if the car was in constant service requiring 
frequent stops, the engine had to be considerably larger than other- 
wise required, as the periods during which it maintained the charging 
speeds of the generator were not of sufficient duration to replace 
the energy given up during the frequent periods of acceleration. 

The expense of the dynamotor equipment was considerably 
in excess of that of the purely mechanical drive, as the gear case 
had to be replaced with a much more expensive electrical machine, 
and as the clutch, drive shaft, universal joints, and final bevel 
gear drive were retained and a storage battery was added. One of 
the interesting features of this equipment was the automatic 
device for slipping the magnetic clutch during starting and accel- 
eration, thus saving the storage battery from excessive discharges 
that would otherwise occur. This device consisted of a solenoid 
in the main armature circuit, the plunger switch inserting a resist- 
ance in the clutch circuit when the solenoid was energized by 
excessive discharge from the battery. 

On account of the high cost of the dynamotor equipment and 
the many troubles that occurred unless it was given constant and 
close attention, it was abandoned for the gear transmission type, 
as shown in Fig. 54. 

Gear Transmission System. The equipment with gear trans- 
mission has two engines mounted on opposite sides of the under- 


frame and carried m a spring-suspended cradle. Each power 
unit, comprising a six-cylinder engine, is arranged to drive inde- 
pendently one of the axles on each truck, a bevel gear arrange- 
ment being mounted on a prolongation of the driven axle. The gear 
transmission is direct connected to the engine through a magnetic 
clutch, and the power is transmitted from there to the driven axle 
through a longitudinal shaft and universal joints, as shown at 
Fig. 53. On the opposite end of the engine from the transmission 
is mounted a generator and motor combined, the function of which 

Fif. 54. Bevel Gear Drive an Wheel Journal 

is to provide means for starting the engine, charging the batteries 
for lighting the car, and operating the air compressor. The whole 
power plant and transmission is so mounted on the spring cushions 
as to relieve the car of all vibrations and gear noises. The gear trans- 
mission was finally adopted after considerable experiment and study. 
The car is fitted with an engineer's cab at each end and the 
whole equipment is arranged symmetrically. The reversal of the 
car direction is through double bevel gears and jaw clutches. The 
most salient features are the magnetic clutch actuation, as pre- 
viously described, and the use of the gear transmissions in tandem. 


The trials and tests of this car showed a fuel consumption of 0.6 
pint of gasoline per brake horsepower hour at a car speed of 18 
m.p.h.; the total consumption was 72 pints, or 9 gallons, that is, 
5.33 miles per gallon, or 160 ton miles per gallon. 

The Daimler Company, of England, has constructed a number 
of these cars, which are in use on English railroads and are giving 
excellent service. 

Thomas Car. The Thomas car is of the electro-mechanical 
type, that is, the drive is by means of a dynamotor in starting and 
then through the gear system and the main drive shaft, much as in 
the Daimler. 

The motor car, Fig. 55, is of the double-truck type, with two 
four-wheel trucks, and has a total length of 62 feet 6 inches and a 

Fig- B5- Thomaa Motor Car Used on New Zealand Government Railways 

width of only 7 feet. The trucks have a wheel-base of 5 feet 10 
inches with truck centers of 38 feet, and the car was built for a 
gage of 3 feet 6 inches. The complete weight of the underframe, 
engine, and trucks is only 18 tons, and the engine, transmission, 
and radiators weigh only 7 tons. The motor car was designed to 
handle two 25-ton trailers and for use on the New Zealand Gov- 
ernment Railways. The specifications called for a car capable of 
hauling one loaded 25-ton car (the gross load being 60 tons) up a 
2J per cent grade at 15 m.p.h. and having a maximum speed of 
40 m.p.h. on level track. 

Engine. The engine is an eight-cylinder V-type and develops 
200 horsepower at a normal speed of 900 r.p.m. but is capable of 
1500 r.p.m. The cylinders have a bore of 7 inches and a stroke 



of 8 inches and are set so that the opposite cylinders act on the 
same crank, one cylinder of each pair having a forked connecting 
rod which has brasses on the outside of the straight connecting 
rod of the other cylinder. This method decreases the length of 
the engine. The main inlet manifold lies in the V between the 
cylinders and has a Claudel-Hobson (English) carburetor at each 
end. / These carburetors work in parallel. Two magnetos are fitted, 
one for each set of cylinders. The valves are situated on the out- 
side of the V, which is an unusual arrangement, but in this case it 
increases their accessibility, Fig. 56. Two mufflers are used, one 
for each set of cylinders, and they are located between the bottom 
of the crankcase and the underframe. Gasoline is the fuel, and 
it is claimed that 200 ton miles per gallon can be obtained on an 
average run, including grades. 

The radiators are fixed at each end of the car and are so 
arranged with ducts that there is an ample flow of air through 
both radiators, irrespective of the car direction. In addition to 
the water-cooling radiators, there is one for cooling the oil used in 
the engine and one for cooling the lubricating oil of the planetary 
gearing which forms a part of this system. Circulation of the water 
is by two centrifugal pumps and that of the oil by gear pumps. 
These pumps are all driven by the engine in such a manner that 
the reversal of the engine does not affect the pump motion. When 
the engine is reversed, only the crankshaft reverses its direction 
of motion. 

Transmission. The Thomas transmission consists essentially 
of planetary gears and two electrical machines, the drive being 
transmitted from the engine to the car wheels in part mechani- 
cally and in part electrically. The idea of this arrangement is to 
obtain the flexibility of the electrical drive and at the same time 
retain the direct mechanical drive at high speed. This permits the 
electrical drive to be of considerably smaller capacity than would 
be required with a full electrical transmission and cuts down its 
weight and losses. The control is simple and the efficiency of the 
equipment is high. The engine is located at the center of the car 
body with the transmissions placed at each end, Fig. 56. 

The first electrical machine A and the planetary gears B are 
at one end of the engine, and the second electrical machine V i» 


at the other end, Fig. 56. The 
planetary gears and the first elec- 
trical machine A, together with 
the magnetic clutches which 
form part of the transmission, 
are built to form a single rigid 
unit, Figs. 56 and 57. The sec- 
ond electrical machine C is not 
illustrated except in the general 
drawing, Fig. 56, and is to all 
intents and purposes a duplicate 
of machine A. 

Referring to Fig. 57, the 
s gears shown have the engine on 
s the left-hand end. The engine 
1 is rigidly connected to the outer 
■g drum of the planetary gears B, 
| and on this drum are mounted 

bearings for two shafts which 

1 carry the planetary gears H and 
| J. Each shaft carries two gears 
£ of different sizes, so that the two 
^ rotating together always form a 
« pair. The larger planetary gears 

II drive on the sun gear F , which 
is secured by a hollow shaft and 
connected by a coupling (not 
shown) to the hollow shaft car- 
rying the armature of the elec- 
trical machine A. 

The smaller planetary gears 
J drive on the sun gear G, which 
is connected through a magnetic 
clutch E to the transmission 
shaft shown at the right-hand 
side of the illustration. A sec- 
ond magnetic clutch V is at the 
left-hand side. This permits the 


engine shaft, which is connected rigidly to the drum of the 
planetary gears, to be coupled to the hollow shaft which carries 
the smaller sun gears F and the armature of the electrical machine 
A. The transmission shaft at the right-hand side drives the out- 
side axle of one truck. The final drive is by a bevel and spur 
gear reduction. The second electrical machine C, Fig. 56, is con- 
nected electrically to the first and receives no mechanical drive 
from the engine but drives the outside axle of the other truck 
through a transmission shaft. 

Operation. The car is governed by the main controller, which 
gives twelve speeds, and an auxiliary switch, which is operated in 
the same way as a clutch pedal on an automobile. The manipula- 
tion of the car in the various stages, beginning when it is standing 
without the engine running and ending with the car running at 
full speed is as follows: When the engine is not running, both 
magnetic clutches D and E are disengaged. To start, the con- 
troller is moved to the "start engine" position. This connects the 
storage battery, which is carried on the car, across the electrical 
machine A. The auxiliary switch is then closed, which energizes 
the magnetic clutch D between the engine and the electrical 
machine A. The battery drives the machine and starts the 
engine. The magnetic clutch is then released, and the running 
engine now drives the drum of the planetary gears, the gears, 
however, running idle. The auxiliary switch is then moved to the 
"on" position, and this energizes the magnetic clutch E which 
connects the sun gear G to the transmission. As the transmission 
is held, owing to the resistance of the car, the result is that the 
first electrical machine A is driven in the reverse direction from 
the engine owing to the action of the planetary gears. 

The main controller is then moved and makes connection 
between the electrical machines A and C; resistance to the motion 
of the first electrical machine A is introduced and, as a conse- 
quence, it is slowed down. Now, as a result of the action of the 
planetary gears, the large sun gear G is driven and the car starts. 
At the same time a starting torque is inversely applied to the 
second electrical machine C by the first machine A. This assists 
in starting, and part of the torque is applied mechanically to the 
driving wheels through the planetary gears and part electrically 


through the second electrical machine. By moving the controller 
over its successive notches, the load on the first electrical machine 
is gradually increased until it slows down and comes to rest. 
Owing to the fixed ratio of the gearing, this means that the large 
sun gear G gradually moves faster, causing the car to increase 
its speed. The same increase in speed takes place in the second 
electrical machine as a result of its connection to the first. During 
this action, more and more of the transmission becomes 
mechanical and correspondingly less of it electrical. When the 
first electrical machine stops, the whole of the transmission is 

To increase the speed of the car still further, the functions of 
the two electrical machines are reversed and the second machine 
C feeds the first machine A. Then machine A begins to rotate in 
the opposite direction, and again, as a result of the fixed ratio of 
the gears, the large sun gear G is driven still more rapidly and the 
car speed further increases. This action goes on until the arma- 
ture of the first electrical machine is running at the speed of the 
engine and in the same direction. The magnetic clutch D con- 
necting the engine and the first machine is then energized, and a 
direct drive is obtained from the engine to the driving wheels, 
since the planetary gears lock. This is the full-speed position, and 
the electrical circuit is cut out. When the car is traveling on 
high-speed gear, the two electrical machines are inoperative and 
can be used for any useful purpose, such as charging the storage 
battery, this battery being used for starting and lighting. The 
battery is not used for assisting the car at any time. The con- 
troller has a notch above full speed, which is used to charge the 

To stop the car, the controller is moved back and both mag- 
netic clutch circuits are broken by the auxiliary switch. To run 
in the reverse direction, the engine is reversed. The controller has 
two reverse notches for short-distance reversing, as in switching. 
When these are in use, the mechanical transmission is cut out by 
disengaging the right-hand magnetic clutch E and a purely 
electrical drive is obtained from the first electrical machine A to 
the second machine C. The change-speed electrical control is aK 
carried out in the fields of the machines, so that no heavy cin> 


rents are handled. The car can be operated from either platform. 
Westinghouse air brakes are used, with an air compressor direct 
connected to the engine crankshaft. 


Extent of Use. Although the hydraulic transmission has been 
tried out several times for automobile service and has rendered 
excellent results and shown high efficiency, its application to the 
self-contained railway car has been limited. The reason for this 
has been principally the lack of understanding on the part of the 
designer of the movement as to actions of a railroad truck. Hence 
when he has attempted to apply hydraulic transmission to trucks 
he has seemed to utterly disregard the conditions existing. There 
is a great difference in the application of a transmission to an 
automobile and to a railroad car. Experience and experiment are 
part of the requisites of the designer who would make application 
of hydraulic principles to the transmission of power, especially in 
railroad service. 

Hele-Shaw Transmission. The Hele-Shaw transmission pos- 
sesses many advantages for railroad service, and in 1913 Messrs. 
McEwan-Pratt & Company, of England, constructed and built a 
standard-gage railroad car equipped with one of these trans- 
missions. The car was built for service in Canada and to operate 
on a circular track. It is 33 feet over all in length, 8 feet 3 inches 
in width, weighs 20 tons, is of the double-truck type, and has a 
seating capacity of thirty-six. 

The power plant is a six-cylinder gasoline engine of 140- 
millimeter bore and 156-millimeter stroke (5.5118 inches by 6.1417 
inches), giving a brake horsepower of 103 at 1150 r.p.m. The 
engine is arranged transversely across the front end of the car in a 
special compartment, or engine room, Fig. 58. This internal- 
combustion engine is direct connected to and drives the hydraulic 
pressure generator, or pump, which supplies pressure to two 
hydraulic motors in parallel on the rear trucks. This transmission 
is quite simple in construction, as all the parts are cylindrical, and 
results in a high efficiency, owing to the means adopted to reduce 
friction. A further simplification lies in the fact that there are no 
operating valves in the pump, motors, or pipe line. 




Pnatwt G merator. 1 e 
tor, or pump, is shown in '. ', from it 

the rotor, or cylinder body, comprises ft acnes of i 
revolving on a fixed shaft. In the length of this 
sages X and Y are formed, connecting the two pa 
nately communicating with the cylin s as they rot 
in the casing of the cylinders is a gui e ring 0, wh 
placed horizontally to either side of the vertical cei 
cylinder body by means of the rod It. This guid 
bearing on its inner circumference for a series of 
form abutments for the pistons fitted to the cylin 

In the first position, Fig. 59 A, the guide rin, 
with the cylinder body, and when the latter is rot 
by the arrow, there being no relative motion beti 
ring and the pistons, no pumping action takes 
guide ring is moved to the second position Fig. 59 
the left of the center, the pistons above the center 
ward in their cylinders and suction takes place th 
sage X and delivery through the passage Y. I 
guide ring to the opposite side of the center line, a 
third position, Fig. 59 C, the direction of now a 
the liquid is reversed, thus giving delivery through 
through 1". It will readily be understood that 
movement of the guide ring to either side of the i 
with a constant speed of rotation, the ratio of pi 
regulated as desired. It is further obvious that ■ 
flow can be effected without shock, since the passu 
ring from one side to the other brings the flow dov 
zero before the change can be made. 

Motors. The motors working in connection v 
are of similar construction but are provided with ft 
and, consequently, have a constant stroke. By 
pump and motors in a closed circuit and by suitabl 
guide ring of the former, a fine graduation of speed 
at a constant speed of the pump may be obtained 

The pump and motors are connected by two ; 
necting the passages X and one the passages Y, 


passages are connected. As is usual in transmissions of the kind, 
■he fluid is oil, and a certain amount is allowed to pass to the 
forking parts to ensure perfect lubrication. In the case of the 
ump, the superfluous oil is drained from the casing to a receiving 
ink by means of a small pipe. It is returned to the system 
gain through nonreturn check valves, the valve corresponding to 
he suction side of the pump always coming into action. 

Distinctive Feature of Design. The general design of the 
notors and pump is shown in Fig. 60, and from the following de- 
motion it can be seen that although the principle of operation 
allows that just given, an important modification is made in the 
(instruction of the guide ring. The center shaft, which is of 
ardened steel, is fixed in the outer casing of the pump and is 
ccurately ground to a running-fit for the cylinder body, which 
otates on it. At the outer end of the shaft, two pipe connections 
K provided, communicating with the two passages X and Y, 
'hich terminate at the center line of the pump in two ports. In 
be pump shown are seven cylinders, these being bored radially in 
he disc-shaped cylinder body, which is driven by the fixed shaft 
brough the side of the casing and further supported by the ball 
earing shown. The outer edge of the disc is reduced in thick- 
iss, #nd slots are formed in the sides of the cylinders to allow 
ie wrist pins IF, carried by the pistons, to pass through. To 
■eh end of the wrist pins are fitted blocks S working in the 
>ating ring U, which forms an essential feature of the design. 

In earlier variable-stroke pumps of similar design, the guide 
ag was stationary, with the result that an excessive amount of 
iding friction existed between this ring and the blocks or their 
luivalent; but in working out this design, Dr. Hele-Shaw hit upon 
ie idea of mounting the ring on roller bearings, and thus reduced 
ie friction to a negligible quantity. The set of roller bearings 
B are mounted in each of the sliding frames T fitted in the 
sing — shown dotted — and these bearings carry the floating 
lide ring U, leaving it perfectly free to revolve on its axis. The 
dy motion of the blocks is due to the slight difference in the 
igular movement of the cylinder body and the floating ring, 
bich is proportional to the stroke of the pistons. The two slid- 
g frames are connected to the shaft E, which passes through the 





casing and is coupled to the gear controlling the stroke and the 
direction of delivery of the pump. 

A number of these transmissions have been put into practical 
use and, on account of the efficient lubrication, wear is practically 
nonexistent. No packings are used in the construction and the 
leakage, which ensures efficient lubrication, is comparatively small. 
The motor is practically the same as the pump, except that 
the floating ring is replaced by a fixed one, so formed that the 
pistons make two strokes to each revolution of the motor. As 
previously explained, the motor has a fixed stroke, and, in order to 
obtain a uniform angular velocity of the oil, seven (an odd num- 
ber) pistons are provided and the guide ring is of special form. 
The blocks are replaced with roller bearings, while the central 
shaft is formed with four ports, which connect in their respective 
sequence to the oil pipes from the pump. 

The oil under a maximum pressure of 2000 pounds per square 
inch is transmitted through a heavy steel pipe to the two hydrau- 
lic motors coupled in parallel on the truck, and the rotary motion 
of the motors is transmitted to the axles through a heavy steel 
chain and sprockets. As the speed of the oil motors is propor- 
tional to the amount of oil delivered by the pump, a continuous, 
variable, and reversible transmission is provided. Safety valves 
are provided on the pipe line so that any undue stress that might 
be thrown on the transmission is automatically relieved. 

The efficiency of the pump, taken separately on truck trials, 
Was 90 per cent and that of the motor 95 per cent. There was 
practically no loss by heat in the transmission, and the oil in the 
pipes, generator, and motors needed no cooling. 

By reason of the sharp curves over which this car runs, it 
Was necessary to provide double trucks, and the pivoted socket 
joint, Fig. 61, was introduced. Locomotive engineers with experi- 
ence on articulated locomotives may regard this joint with mixed 
feelings. It may, however, be pointed out that the manner in 
'which the whole thing is mounted is calculated to prevent any 
Relative motion between the parts, except in the vertical and 
horizontal planes. In developing this system of rigid connections 
combined with the swing joint for the oil supply, a considerable 
amount of experimenting was carried out with various kinds of 


flexible tubing. As a result, it was discovered that although it 
was possible to obtain tubing that would withstand the high 
pressure, on application of this pressure the tube ceased to be 
flexible and was of no further use for the purposes intended. 
Since this point may not be generally recognized, it is considered 
of sufficient importance to be mentioned in this connection. 
Another feature ot the system is a by-pass for the oil, which is 
automatically actuated by means of cylinders when the brakes are 
applied, thus preventing damage to the hydraulic motors. Tests 
of the car proved the claims made for it. 

Advantage of System. The advantage of the hydraulic drive 
is that a great starting effort can be applied to the driving wheels 
without the shock which so frequently accompanies the use of a 
clutch and gearing. Also, the speed ratios are' infinite from zero 
to maximum and the car is started, stopped, and reversed with the 
greatest ease. This type of drive was built to the order of John 
Birch & Company, of 2 London Wall Building, London, E. C. 

Zeitler Gas-Hydraulic Motor Car.* Self-contained railway 
motor cars have followed automobile practice closely as far as the 
engine and the transmission are concerned, and the placing of 
these parts has been similar to that in the first electric ears, in 
which the electric motor was placed in the car and belted or 
geared down to the axles. With the engine in the car body many 
difficulties arise, as the engine occupies a special room 12 to 15 
feet in length in the front end of the body, practically one-fourth 
the length of the average car body. Designers of foreign cars have 
attempted to solve the problem of engine location in various ways 
and in the Deutz equipment, Fig. 33, the engine is located under 
a hood on a portion of the truck which projects beyond the car 

All methods of transmission have been introduced between the 
engine and the driving wheels but the mechanical and electric 
types predominate owing to their ease of application and then- 
close association with allied mechanical and electric features of 
railway equipments. 

In designing the Zeitler equipments, it has been the purpose 
to eliminate, if possible, current objections to the internal-combua- 

•Zeitler Gu Car and Locomotive Company. 20 West Jackson Boulevard, OMm— 


1 engine 

3 of cars 
and the 

six-, or 
1 or dis- 

the head 
niting it. 
i, stroke, 

valve in 
les being 
ylinder is 
s located 

it in air 
num fins 
n electric 
1 system 

and the 
'onus the 
us vibra- 

effect is 
■ration of 

ishaft is 

.hich are 
the sec- 
At the 

g that is 

■viator, is 

flexible t 
was poss 
flexible i 
Since thi 
of suffic: 
of the ca 
is that a 
clutch ar 
to maxio 

Birch & 
motor ca 
engine a 
these pai 
which th 
geared di 
feet in le 
the lengt 
and in tl 
a hood c 

All i 
engine a: 
types pp 
close ass 
railway e 

In d 
to elimiti 


tion. engine as a motive power. A simple high-speed engine 
has been designed and, together with the hydraulic transmission 
and multiple-unit control, the equipment will fit all types of cars 
and locomotives. The entire control of the engine and the 
transmission is placed in a single operating lever. 

Engine. The engine is a horizontal-opposed four-, six-, or 
eight-cylinder internal-combustion engine using crude oil or dis- 
tillate as fuel and operating on the two- or four-cycle principles. 
The trucks have the horsepower required for the drawbar 
pull and tractive effort necessary for the service to be rendered. 
The fuel is injected into a small cup-shaped receptacle in the head 
of the cylinder, the high compression vaporizing and igniting it. 
Just before the piston reaches the end of its out, or down, stroke, 
the exhaust ports are uncovered and, at the same time, a valve in 
the head is opened to the atmosphere, the exhaust gases being 
drawn out through a suction fan and the muffler. The cylinder is 
thus completely scavenged by the fresh air admitted. The cylinders 
are water cooled; pipes lead from the truck through locomotive 
swing Joints to the body and then to the radiator, which is located 
in the roof of the car and is cooled by an independent electric- 
motor driven fan. The company intends to experiment in air 
cooling the engine cylinders by means of enclosed aluminum fins 
and a forced air circulation. The engine is started by an electric 
motor which is connected into the multiple-unit control system 
described on page 88. The crankcase of the engine and the 
casings of the hydraulic generators comprise a unit that forms the 
bolster* of the truck and is spring supported, Fig. 61. Thus vibra- 
tion of the engine is relieved and the same cushioning effect is 
provided as if the engine were inside the car body. Vibration of 
the car is also reduced to a minimum. 

Transmission. As no flywheel is used, the crankshaft is 
extended at each end, on which are mounted hydraulic pressure 
generators, Fig. 62, consisting of common castings in which are 
bored nine holes, or cylinders, (only eight are shown in the sec- 
tions at the right) each fitted with a piston plunger. At the 
outer end of each crankshaft extension is mounted a ring that is 
keyed to it. This ring, which is termed the stroke regulator, is 


mounted on a special joint in such a manner that it an assume an 

angle of inclination with respect to the crankshaft d at the same 
time revolve with it. The ring is also connected to the pistons by 
means of ball-end connecting links. When the crankshaft revolves, j 
this entire mechanism revolves with it; while the ring is at right .: 
angles to the crankshaft, no motion is transmitted to the pistons, ■ 
but as soon as the stroke regulator is moved to one side or the 
other of the vertical center line, the pistons immediately have I j 
stroke, and the greater the inclination of the ring the longer the i 
stroke until the maximum is reached. The pistons which at soy 
given instant are above the horizontal center line move in toward 
the center of the truck, and those which at the same instant are 
below move outward and cause suction. At the back of the 
pistons is a valve plate so constructed that half of the pistons 
deliver oil and pressure through it, while the other half of the 
pistons receive their supply from it. To the two ports in this 
plate are connected pipes which lead to two similar ports in the 
hydraulic motors on the axles and a closed circuit is thus formed- 

The hydraulic motors, Fig. 62, are similar in construction to 
the pressure generators, with this exception, however, that in the 
motor the ring is fixed at a given angle and there 
have their maximum stroke at all times. The 
regulator, on the pressure generator may be move 
position to its maximum in either direction at a gi\ 
series of infinite steps, thus causing a variation in 
liquid pumped; this, in turn, causes a greater c 
against the pistons of the hydraulic motor and the 
or less turning effort and speed of rotation. The o 
as a power-transmitting medium may be caused t 
direction through the pipes and the system. Sine* 
a constant stroke and the pressure generator a vai 
cient torque may be generated to slip the wheels 
As it is a well-known fact that it takes a given po 
given tonnage, the engine and the transmission n 
tioned according to the required drawbar pull 01 
small electric motor controlled through the multi 
system by the master controller swings the stroke 
its center in either direction so as to give the desin 


ation. The forces acting on the pressure generator are balanced 
»ut the horizontal center line, therefore only a small amount of 
aergy is required to overcome the frictional resistance. 

To make clear the operation of this transmission, an explana- 
©n in connection with Fig. 63 follows. It is assumed that the 
itire pressure generated by the hydraulic pressure generator is 
mcentrated at the center line of the axle and thus at the highest 
>int of inclination in reference to the horizontal center line. As 
ere are nine pistons in the casting, four are constantly generat- 
5 pressure, one is passing the neutral point on the horizontal 
titer line, and four are on the opposite side of this horizontal 
nter line and are causing suction. It was found that it was 
«essary to have an odd number of pistons in order to obtain a 

Fig. S3. Operation Diagram of Zeiiler Hydraulic Motor 

gular angular velocity of the oil through the system and to 
oduce an even turning moment. In the motor end the same 
'cie of operations occurs. In converting the pressure into rotary 
otion, the pressure is assumed to be acting on the point x from the 
>rizontal center line, which distance is the sum of the x distances, 
herefore, the force acting on the inclined plane is the force 
X sine 6 X cosine X distance x, which gives the rotary force 
ting at right angles to the axle. In other words, the force is 
ting on an inclined plane at the average distance x from the 
nizontal center line. 

The transmission is very simple in design, and since all parts 
ork in oil, they are thoroughly lubricated, which means long life 
id almost negligible wear. At excessive high pressures the oil 


will leak past the pistons into the ring chamber, where it is 
caught and returned to the system again through nonreturn 
check valves, the suction side opening the proper check valve. 

Multiple- Unit Control. The multiple-unit control is just as 
important to the entire system as the transmission. It was 
designed for a service requiring sometimes that cars be operated 
singly and sometimes that a number be coupled together and 
operated simultaneously. The motor truck and equipment furnish 
a system whereby any number of cars having motor trucks may be 
arranged in any desired relation and controlled and operated 
simultaneously by a single operator. The cab, which i3 arranged 
for double-end operation, contains only the controller and brake 
valve and may be so constructed that all the operating mechanism 
can be shut in when not in use and occupy very little space. A 
single line is so connected to a graduated voltmeter that it indi- 
cates the number of engines in a train that are running. In case 
one engine fails to start or run, the unit may be cut out as easily 
as an electric motor in an electric train. There is only one control 
lever and it works as follows: Advancing the control lever to the 
first point cuts in the engine-starting motor and simultaneously 
opens the fuel valve, which is controlled through an electrically 
driven governor. Continued advance of the controller speeds up 
the engine to maximum, the engine-starting motor being auto- 
matically cut out when the engine starts to run. On the end of 
the controller handle is a small push button having three posi- 
tions, namely, normal position, or entirely out; second position, or 
halfway in; and third position, or all the way in. When the 
button is depressed completely, the acceleration motors on the 
hydraulic pressure generators are cut in. As long as the button 
is held depressed, automatic acceleration results. This accelera- 
tion may be stopped and the speed held at any point by releasing 
the button to the halfway position, and by entirely releasing it to 
its original position, deceleration is brought about and the trans- 
mission automatically returns to neutral. To reverse the car 
movement, an ordinary auxiliary switch is moved, reversing the 
direction of rotation of the acceleration motors. 

Advantages of System. By the arrangement of the engine and 
the transmission in the truck any car — street, interurban, or 


steam railroad — may be equipped. Having the entire power plant 
under the car and independent of it gives all the advantages of 
an electric car, for, in emergency or accident, a truck may be 
removed and replaced in an hour. The hydraulic transmission is 
the simplest and most direct of the power-transmitting systems 
and has the highest and most nearly continuous efficiency. 

' The wheel base of the trucks may be as short as needed for 
street and interurban service, and by equipping both trucks under 
a car the maximum tractive effort may be obtained, all the wheels 
being drivers, a feature of importance on slippery rails, grades, 
etc. The transmission in connection with the multiple-unit control 
system furnishes the equivalent of an infinite number of gear 
ratios, but without gears. This makes it possible to secure a high 
and smooth rate of acceleration. By reversing the hydraulic 
generator, it can be used as a brake in case of emergency, inde- 
pendently of the air or hand brakes. The lighting of the car is 
by means of incandescent lamps, the current being taken from the 
storage battery of an axle-light equipment. The system has but 
few parts and is free from complication. All the operating current 
is supplied from a 30-volt standard axle-light equipment which 
furnished light for the cars. 

Sizes. The Zeitler* equipments! are designed in three standard 
sizes of engines, 200, 400, and 600 horsepower to the truck, and 
the trucks are generally of the M.C.B. type, such standards as 
are consistent being used. The 600-horsepower equipment is 
principally for locomotives for steam road service. 

The Zeitler Company also manufactures a truck motor with a 
seven-speed mechanical transmission in sizes of 100 horsepower 
and 150 horsepower. 


Development. The self-contained locomotive using the internal- 
combustion engine has not been developed up to the present time 
to the stage where it can compete with the steam and the elec- 
tric locomotive. As is shown by the following illustrations and 

re Company, 20 West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago. 


descriptions, attempts have been made along this line, but, as 
was the case with the steam and the electric locomotive, there must 
be a number of stages of progress before the type can be perfected. 

Advantages of Type. Since the internal-combustion engine 
can and does develop more power for a given space, or area, 
occupied than any other type of prime mover and since it is 
adapted for long and continuous service and lends itself easily to 
repairs and replacements, the trend is toward the operation of 
both passenger and freight service by this type of engine. Opera- 
tion and maintenance costs are less when it is used than when 
either the steam or the electric locomotive is employed. More 
has been done in the development of this engine than the casual 
observer imagines. The one thing that has not been worked out 
to give thorough satisfaction in operation is an elastic transmis- 
sion between the engine and the wheels; however, this is being 
rapidly developed and the near future holds the solution. Never 
before in the history of the United States has there been such * 
demand as now exists for a more economic and reliable motive 
power to transport the- world's supplies, and this demand means 
a more concentrated effort to develop a locomotive of the greatest 
possible efficiency. 

Transmission in Locomotives. An important factor in loco- 
motive design is the arrangement of the control (transmission 
again), as, in a locomotive, this problem has its distinctive char- 
acteristics, for at every speed the power required can vary within 
wide limits owing to the changing grades, track conditions, and 
engine resistance. Thus, although an engine may be hauling its 
load at 60 miles per hour with the throttle open one-third, there 
may be such a change in conditions in a minute that the full 
power, or throttle, will be needed to maintain the same speed. It 
follows as a corollary to the above fact that the locomotive is not 
loaded to its maximum capacity, or anything like its maximum ca- 
pacity, all the time during the run — a feature decidedly advantageous. 

Sulzer-Diesel Locomotive. Engine. One of the most successful 
locomotives of the internal-combustion engine type is the Sulzer- 
Diesel, Fig. 64, designed by Dr. Diesel and using the famous 
Diesel crude-oil internal-combustion engine. The locomotive 
illustrated was constructed by Sulzer Brothers in their Winterthur 





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shops in Germany and is rated at 1200 horsepower. The driving 
unit consists of a four-cylinder single-acting two-cycle reversible 
engine, in which the cylinders are set at 45 degrees to the vertical 
in pairs on either side of the center line with 00 degrees between 
the opposing cylinders. Fig. 65. These are built on a crankcase 
fixed across the locomotive frame, and through bolts are carried 
in the usual way from the cylinder heads directly to the bearing 
webs, the cylinders themselves being relieved from the stresses 
arising from the pressure of the heads. The crankshaft has two 
throws 180 degrees apart, and each crankpin is driven by two 
connecting rods from opposite cylinders, the big-ends being forked 
to give a perfectly symmetrical disposition of the power lines. 
One big-end occupies the middle of the crankpin, while the other 
is branched to bear on the pin in the two spaces next to the crank 
webs. Outside the locomotive frame two disc cranks with balance 
weights are formed on the crankshaft to transmit the power through 
side and connecting rods to the wheels. In this manner a complete 
balance is obtained of the primary forces of the reciprocating masses 
in the engine and the centrifugal forces of the cranks, connect- 
ing rods, and balance weights. Counterweights are introduced in 
the driving wheels to neutralize the rotating masses which influence 
them. The secondary forces due to the obliquity of the connecting 
rods remain free, but since the resultant passes through the crank- 
shaft midway between the center lines of the cylinders and is 
horizontal, it does not give rise to rocking effects or oscillations 
perpendicular to the track. 

The cylinders have a bore of 380 millimeters f 14 ^ inch esJ. 
Fig. 66, and a piston stroke of 550 millimeters (21 — inches! 

At 304 r.p.m., the rate at which the engine turns when the locomo- 
tive is traveling 63 m.p.h., the maximum brake horsepower is 1600. 
It is rather difficult to name a power at which this type of engine 
should be known, but the builders employ the term "1000-horse- 
power thermo locomotive." In relation to its power the engine is 
remarkable for its compactness and occupies only one-third the 
length of the body. Its weight does not exceed 95 tons, and the 
{act that a number of air reservoirs and an auxiliary air com- 


pressor set of 250 horsepower are carried shows that the material 
was judiciously used in its construction. 

Between the four inclined cylinders are two double-acting 
pumps and a three-stage air compressor, the three units being 

a Head of Sulwi-Dinel E 

driven from the connecting rods of the forward cylinders by 
means of rocking levers and links. They are all provided with 
safety valves. This compressor has only sufficient capacity to 


furnish the injection air at reduced speeds and loads, should the 
250-horsepower air compressor set for any reason not be running. 
Each scavenging pump supplies air to the pair of cylinders imme- 
diately next to it, the air pipes being so short that no trouble can 
arise in them from inertia or from surging, both of which would 
interfere considerably with the scavenging of a high-speed engine. 
Pressure. At full power the mean indicated pressure in the 
engine is as high as 175 pounds per square inch, which is practi- 
cally double that used in ordinary Diesel practice. Shortness is a 

fl«. 07. Section of Sulwr- Diesel Engine. Driving Auxiliary Air Compressor Set 

feature of the exhaust pipes, which lie between the cylinders and 
connect from the exhaust ports straight to the mufflers in the 
roof. Each pair of opposed cylinders exhausts into a separate 
manifold and then through a common third muffler into the 
atmosphere. The three parallel expansion chambers are sub- 
divided by baffle plates. 

Auxiliary Air Compressor Set. In the forward part of the 
locomotive stands the auxiliary air compressor set, consisting of a 
two-cylinder vertical two-cycle 250-horsepower Diesel engine, driving 


two horizontal air compressors, Fig. 67. The engine cylinders have a 
bore of 305 millimeters f 12 tt inches J and a stroke of 380 milli- 
meters ( 14 ^n" inches J with two cranks set at 180 degrees. In this 

engine the scavenging is effected through two valves in the head 
of each cylinder, the exhaust being blown through ports uncovered 
by the pistons at the bottom of the stroke. In the usual Sulzer 
manner, the cylinder heads are bolted straight through to the bed- 
plate and diagonal ties are used. The crankcase is enclosed, 
forced lubrication being employed for the main bearings and the 
ends of the connecting rods. Separate oil pumps supply the 
lubrication to the cylinder walls, the quantity delivered at each 
feed being adjustable. 

Valves. In the cab at each end of the locomotive there is a 
starting valve with two levers, through one of which the main 
engine is connected to the air reservoirs, while the other controls 
the blast to the engine. Although, owing to the particular regula- 
tion of the various valves, the main engine can be worked at an 
exceedingly heavy duty, its operation on the whole is similar to 
that of the usual Diesel type. Fig. 67 illustrates the cylinder 
head in section, showing the two scavenging valves and the fuel 
injector. An important feature is the relative high pressure of 
the scavenging air, this being supplied to the cylinders at 21 
pounds per square inch. The starting air is admitted at 760 
pounds per square inch and the blast varies between 750 and 
1050 pounds per square inch. All these valves are subject to 
variation of timing, the operation of each being regulated to suit 
the load on the engine. 

Starting and Stopping Locomotive. To start the locomotive, 
the auxiliary air compressor set being at work and the starting 
gear in the most advanced position, air is admitted gradually to 
the main cylinders by a progressive movement of the valve on the 
starting reservoirs. As the pressure in the cylinders rises, the 
engine gets under way and turns the driving wheels. As the speed 
of the locomotive increases, the starting mechanism is notched 
back slightly and at 6} m.p.h. it is thrown out entirely and the 
fuel valves cut in. The locomotive is then working under normal 


conditions and, according to the power and speed required, the 
fuel injections and blast pressure are regulated in the manner 
previously described. To bring the train to rest, the fuel supply 
is cut off and the brakes applied. The air for the brakes is taken 
from the intermediate stage of the air compressor and supplies 
the brake cylinders through special reservoirs. Reversing is 
accomplished from either end of the locomotive by turning the 
wheel which operates the reverse rods and interlocks the fuel 
valves with them. 

Pumps. Four auxiliary pumps are installed, of which two 
are driven from the auxiliary engine and two are operated by 
the connecting rods. Three of these pumps are connected with the 
water circulation and the fourth maintains the fuel supply to 
the engines. The main circulation pumps feed the water from the 
different circuits to condensers in the roofs over the cabs. The 
rate of flow can be regulated; in order to prevent the water flow- 
ing from the condenser too quickly, its outlet is restricted, four 
small pipes leading to the reservoir below, where it is drawn off 
by the circulation pump. The supply for the piston cooling is 
taken from the pressure side of the main pumps and is delivered 
by a separate pump. A cold-water pump is available, and into 
this is built a small pump which pushes fuel from the main tanks 
through a filter to the injection pumps on the engine, the 
overflow returning to the tanks. In the cab four rotary pumps 
are installed, one for cold water, one for the circulation system, 
and one for the fuel supply, the purpose of the three being to 
prime the pipes. The fourth is connected with the forced lubrica- 
tion of the main engine in order that the bearings inside the crank 
chamber may be lubricated before starting the engine. On both 
sides of the locomotive the water piping is brought together in 
order that the water spaces may be drained when so required. 

Miscellaneous Description. At each end of the locomotive is 
a cab for the engineer, who has under his control the various 
levers, such as one for the starting fuel valves and one for the fuel 
injection pumps, a wheel for the starting air supply, the brake 
lever, the sand blast, and the different gages. The locomotive is 
64 feet 5i inches over the end buffers and has a rigid wheel base 
of 11 feet 9§ inches. The entire driving mechanism is enclosed in 


dirt- and dust-proof housings, doors being provided to give easy 
access for inspection. In the corners of the cabs are reservoirs 
for air, water, and fuel. There are three longitudinal divisions in 
the roof, two spaces being used for the air supply to the different 
compressors and air pumps, all of which are supplied from separate 
pipes. The central division is occupied by the mufflers, but at 
the ends over the cabs are, respectively, a condenser and a honey- 
comb radiator. 

McKeen Locomotive. General Description. The McKeen 
gasoline switching and freight locomotive, Figs. 68 and 69, is 
manufactured by the McKeen Motor Car Company, Omaha, 
Nebraska, and has a tractive effort of 12,000 pounds at 6 m.p.h. 
It is mounted on six 42-inch wheels, four of which are driven by a 
six-cylinder type C gasoline engine, the wheel arrangement being 
of the 042 class. The frames are of cast steel, and the cab is an 
all-steel built-up structure extending the entire length of the locomo- 


tive between the bumper beams and is so bolted to the frames 
and the bumper beams as to add very materially to the strength 
of the locomotive. The usual type of locomotive spring suspension 
with equalizers is used to transfer the weight to the wheels. 
The engine bed is a steel casting which forms an efficient brace 
and reinforcement in tying one side frame to the other. In the 
300-horsepower six-cylinder engine the diameter and stroke are 11 
inches and 15 inches, respectively. Its general design and details 

Fif . 69. Arrange: 

in McKeen Gasoline Locomotive 

correspond to the manufacturer's latest model "Foolproof" engine, 
which is provided with increased water circulation around the 
valves and cylinder heads, tungsten steel valves, triple piston 
rings, water-jacketed intake pipes, enclosed flywheel, crankshaft, 
water- and air-pump mechanism, combination splash, and an 
automatic lubricating system. 

Two exhaust pipes are provided which extend above the roof. 
The engine has an air reversing mechanism which slides the cam- 


shaft for reversing the direction of rotation of the engine, the 
camshaft being provided with two sets of cams. Two 5-inch air 
compressors are attached to the engine crankshaft, in addition to 
an auxiliary compressor, as described under the McKeen Gasoline 
Motor Car, page 30. 

Transmission. The ends of the front or main axles and the 
rear driving axles have counterbalanced crank discs which are 
connected by side rods. The transmission is pneumatically operated 
and power is transferred by a sprocket on the crankshaft and a 
Morse silent chain to a sprocket on a sleeve working free on the 
rear driving axle and then by a Morse chain to the forward axle, 

Fig. 70. Baldwin Industrial Gwolino Locomotive 

where, by another clutch, it is either magnified by a series of 
herringbone gears to produce a heavy tractive effort and high 
torque for starting and heavy loads or is delivered direct to the 
driving wheels. By thus magnifying the torque of the internal- 
combustion engine, great starting effort is attained in this type of 
locomotive. At the same time, when the locomotive is once in 
motion, higher economy is obtained by cutting out the gears and 
operating on a direct connection. 

Engineer's Position. The engineer's position is at the center 
and on the right-hand side with an uninterrupted view in all 
directions. All levers for operating, including the air-brake valve 
and reverse control, are at his aide. In this type of locomotive signal 


observation is superior to that of the steam locomotive on account 
of the absence of the boiler and the tender. 

Baldwin Gasoline Locomotive. The Baldwin Locomotive 
Company, at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, build small industrial 
gasoline locomotives. The largest locomotive of this type con- 
structed by this company was built for a cereal plant at Battle 
Creek, Michigan, and is on the same general lines as the smaller 
ones. This locomotive, Fig. 70, was designed for standard gage, 
having a vertical four-cylinder four-cycle engine, which gives a 
drawbar pull of 6000 pounds on low gear and 1700 pounds on 
high gear. The frame is mounted on 42-inch driving wheels and 
has a rigid wheel base of 6 feet 6 inches, a total length of 19 
feet 4 inches, a height of 11 feet from the top of the rail to the 

>!■. 71. Plan View of Baldwin Gasoline Locomotive, Showing Arrangement of Parts 

top of the cab, and an over-all width of 9 feet. The locomotive 
was designed to haul 200 tons on level track and around 28-degree 
curves or lighter loads up various grades. The consumption of 
gasoline in average service was found to be about 4J gallons per 
hour hauling 80 tons back and forth over level track and 8 per 
cent grades. 

Operation. The gasoline engine, Fig. 71, drives a bevel pin- 
ion through the friction clutch in the flywheel, which pinion is 
constantly in mesh with two large bevel gears on the intermediate 
shaft. With the main clutch in the flywheel engaged, the large 
bevels revolve in opposite directions. These bevels run loose on the 
intermediate shaft, except when one or the other is engaged by a 
forward and reverse jaw clutch which is located between the 
bevels and provides for the operation of the locomotive in either 


direction. Two spur gears of different diameters are keyed on 
the intermediate shaft and are constantly in mesh with corre- 
sponding high- and low-speed gears on the countershaft directly 
under the intermediate shaft. The two countershaft gears run 
loose except when one or the other is engaged by a high- and low- 
speed jaw clutch located between them. On this same shaft are 
two driving discs set 90 degrees apart and connected to both pairs 
of driving wheels by Scotch yoke side rods. Only one side rod is 
used on each side, which method ensures a positive drive and yet 
allows free vertical motion of the driving wheels and complete 
spring suspension of the entire locomotive. The design has been 
developed from steam practice, as is evident in the illustrations. 

Fig. 72. 20-Tod Gasoline Locomotive 

The imitation smokestack is the muffler. The motor is water 
cooled and especially designed for the service requirements. The 
parts of the engine and the transmission are thoroughly lubri- 
cated and run in oil-tight casings. 

Internal-Combustion Engine Locomotive. The Internal- - 
Combustion Engine Locomotive Company, of Wilmington, Deta — 
ware, brought out, in 1915, an internal-combustion engines 
locomotive for double-end operation similar in general arrangement 
to the regulation steam locomotive, with side connecting rods, 
drivers and frame, and pony leading truck to negotiate sharp 
curves, Figs. 72 and 73. The transmission is of the mechanical 
drive type and has a master clutch of the Hele-Shaw multiple- 


disc type connecting the e-tgine and the driving shaft with the 
transmission system. The driven shaft of the transmission carries 
an individual clutch for each speed to be applied, thus giving a 
transmission without gears to slide in and out of mesh. The 
transmission differs from the automobile form in having the same 
number of running speeds in either direction. The application of 
the power by this transmission is through chain and sprocket, 
although gears constantly in mesh may be substituted. The fuel 
is gasoline, kerosene, ozoline, or distillates. The heating and 
lighting of the trailing coaches are provided by the locomotive 

Tig. 7J. Airani-emcTi! of Equipment in Internal-Combustion Engine Locomotive 

which is capable of hauling trains at a speed of from 25 to 50 

General Electric Locomotive. The gas-electric locomotive 
illustrated in Figs. 74 and 75 was built by the General Electric 
Company, Schenectady, New York, and is used by the Minne- 
apolis, St. Paul, Rochester and Dubuque Electric Traction Com- 
pany, operating what is popularly known as the "Dan Patch" 
electric line, which is said to be the first railroad operating entirely 
with an internal-combustion engine service. This 60-ton locomo- 
tive is double ended, being built with the box type of cab extend- 
ing nearly the entire length of the underframe and having all the 


weight on the drivers. The wheels are 33 inches in diameter, each 
truck being equipped with 100-horsepower motors. The truck clear- 
ances allow for a 100-foot minimum radius of track curvature. 

Power Plant. The power plant consists of two 135-kilowatt 
generating plants similar to the ones used in the gas-electric motor 
cars and one engineer is required for its operation. Each of the 
two gas-electric generating plants is composed of a 175-horse- 
power, 550-r.p.m., eight-cylinder four-cycle gasoline engine of the 
V type direct connected to a 600-volt commutating-pole, compound- 
wound electric generator, with an outboard bearing supported by 
brackets bolted to the magnet frame. The cylinders have an 

Fig. 74. 60-Ton Gas-Electric Locomotive Used on "Dan Patch" Lines 

8-inch bore and a 10-inch stroke. Ignition is by a low-tension 
magneto. The engines are started by compressed air in the same 
way as on the gas-electric cars, with the additional feature that 
after the first one is running the second may be started electrically 
from it. The control is arranged so that one or both generating 
sets may be used to operate the locomotive from either end in 
accordance with the trailing load. Compressed air for starting is 
taken from the main reservoirs of the air-brake system, these 
being built with a surplus capacity. The two single-cylinder air 
compressors which are driven from the crankshafts of the main 
engines have a displacement of 22J cubic feet of free air per minute 
at the rated speeds and are fitted with automatic governors to 
maintain a constant pressure. 

The engines can rotate at normal speed irrespective of the speed 
of the locomotive and deliver their maximum power at all times, 


a feature of advantage on grades, in case of storm, or under other 
emergency conditions involving sudden heavy current demands. 

Av&Uiary Power Plant. The locomotive is provided with an 
auxiliary gas-electric set to furnish power for lighting the cab, 
headlights, and trailers and for pumping an initial charge of air to 
fill the reservoirs and start the engines. This set is started by 
hand and consists of a vertical four-cylinder four-cycle 750-r.p.m. 
gasoline engine which is 
direct connected to a 5- 
kilowatt 65-volt commu- 
tating-pole compound- 
wound electric generator. 
The cylinders have a 
3-inch bore with a 6-inch 
stroke, and ignition is 
by a high-tension mag- 
neto. The air compres- 
sor on the 65-volt circuit 
is of the two-cylinder 
railway type and has a 
displacement of 25 cubic 
feet per minute against 

R tank pressure of 90 F«. 75. Cab Interior of "Dan Patch" Lino Locomotive 

pounds per square inch. 

Air for all the compressors is taken from the cab interior 
through screens and delivered to the three reservoirs, each 18 
inches by 87$ inches, which are installed at one side of the cab in 
the center and are connected in series, thereby affording an oppor- 
tunity for the radiation of heat and the condensation of moisture 
before the air enters the air-brake cylinders. After starting the 
main engines, the governor cuts out the motor-driven set and all 
lir is supplied by the air compressors on the main engines. 

Tractive Effort. Mounted on the axles with nose suspension 
are four General Electric 205D GOO-volt commutating-pole series- 
wound box-frame railway motors, having an hourly rating of 100 
horsepower each. All four axles are, therefore, driving axles. The 
gear ratio is 17:58 {a reduction of 3.41), which ratio is especially 
adapted for freight and switching service as it affords a maximum 


tractive effort for starting and low speeds. The motors are 
ventilated by a special vacuum system operated in conjunction 
with the engines. The performance of the locomotive is approxi- 
mately such that a tractive effort of 16,000 pounds is provided at 
5 m.p.h. and 3500 pounds at 30 m.p.h. 

Control of Motor Equipment. The control of the motor equip- 
ment is similar to that of the standard gas-electric motor car, with 
the cab installed at each end. The motors, however, are connected 
permanently in pairs in parallel, and the two pairs, operating like 
single motors, are placed progressively in series and parallel. The 
controller provides seven running steps in series and six in parallel 
without rheostats in the main circuit. There are two additional 
points for shunting the fields, making a total of fifteen running points. 

To produce smooth and rapid acceleration, the speed changes 
are made by governing the voltage through varying the strength 
of the generator fields, this being accomplished by the movement 
of one handle on the controller. Separate handles are provided 
for throttling the engine and reversing the motors. The latter 
operation is accomplished by changing the motor connections in 
the usual manner and without stopping the engines which always 
rotate in the same direction. This, in an emergency, allows the 
train to be brought quickly to a stop independently of the brakes. 

Construction Data. A 300-gallon gasoline tank fitted with cap 
and filler is installed beneath the underframing of the locomotive. 
The radiators are of the fin type and are mounted on each section 
of the cab roof, the water being circulated by the thermosiphon 
system. There is also a radiator draining system, the tanks being 
situated at one side in the central section of the cab; and a suc- 
tion type of ventilator is mounted in the roof between the radiators. 

The principal data and dimensions are as follows: 

Total net weight 120000 pounds 

Weight, per axle 30000 pounds 

Maximum tractive effort 32200 pounds 

Length between couple faces 42 feet 4 inches 

Length over cab 34 feet 

Height over all 14 feet 10J inches 

Width over all 10 feet 2 inches 

Total wheel base 24 feet 

Rigid wheel bane 6 feet 10 inches 


Zeitler Gas-Hydraulic Locomotive. Many of the features to 
be embodied in the design of an ideal internal-combustion engine 
locomotive depend entirely upon the point of view. Any locomo- 
tive, however, must contain certain essential features, namely: 

(1) Mechanical parts of strength sufficient to meet the service 

(2) Sufficient engine capacity to develop the required power 

(3) A reliable transmission between the engine and the wheels 

(4) A complete control system 

(5) Riding qualities that enable the locomotive to negotiate the rails 
without undue damage 

(6) Weight on the driving wheels sufficient for adhesion 

The Zeitler gas-hydraulic locomotive, Fig. 76, is intended for 
both freight and passenger service. The general design of the 
trucks, the engine, and the transmission is similar to that designed 
and used for independent passenger car service, with the exception 
that the trucks have cast-steel side frames which are so constructed 
that by removing part of the wheel piece, the entire engine may 
be removed for repairs or renewals. The engine for the locomo- 
tive is either a six- or eight-cylinder two-cycle crude-oil or dis- 
tillate burning type and is of high-speed construction, developing 
a maximum horsepower of 400 or 600. 

Power Plant. The engine is started by an electric motor 
deriving its current from the storage battery and coupled into the 
control system, so that no special switch is used for starting the 
engine, all the starting being accomplished through the master 
controller handle. This motor is cut out automatically when the 
engine starts to run. All the machinery with the exception of the 
*ir compressor, is mounted entirely on the trucks, which makes it 
possible to utilize the interior of the locomotive for other purposes. 
The air compressor is direct connected to a separate engine and 
with this engine constitutes an individual unit, thus making it 
possible to supply air to the main reservoirs without starting the 
main engine. 

Hydraulic Transmission. The hydraulic transmission is the 
same as that used on the Zeitler independent motor cars, page 85, 
and is proportioned to the service requirements. No gears are 
used, since the transmission is direct connected to the axles, and 
the losses caused by the gears are thus eliminated. Smooth and 
even acceleration is obtained and the transmission may be put in 



such a low-speed ratio as to slip the wheels, if the resistance is 
great enough. The engines may be run at a constant speed or at 
a variable speed to suit the condition of the load. In case of 
emergency, the hydraulic transmission may be reversed and used 
as a brake independently of the air or hand brakes. In fact, 
after some practice, the hydraulic transmission may be used for 
general braking and thereby save air. 

Radiators. The radiators are placed in the roof of the 
locomotive, one for each engine, and are cooled by a forced-air 
circulation. The fan for this purpose is driven independently of 
the engine by a 30-volt electric motor and is connected in with the 
control system so that its speed is regulated according to the 
engine speed. 

Characteristics of Type. By means of the multiple-unit con- 
trol system two or more locomotives may be coupled together and 
operated as a single unit, thus providing the necessary tractive 
effort for heavy loads. As this locomotive is provided with double- 
end control, no switch is required at terminals, and as the speed 
and pull may be varied within wide limits, the locomotive may be 
used for either freight or passenger service. However, its use for 
passenger service depends upon whether or not it is so designed 
that it can hold the rails at high speeds. The body of the loco- 
motive is, in general, similar to that used for electric locomotives, 
but may be varied to suit the requirements of the purchaser. 


Importance of Type. Owing primarily to the expiration of 
the basic Diesel patents, the recent development of the crude-oil 
burning prime mover has been unparalleled and its application to 
marine work has been especially noticeable. The marine interests 
of this country have watched closely the work of this engine and 
today it is an accepted power in that field. Other applications 
of it are common and Diesel engines, Fig. 77, or closely related 
types are found in all lines of work. 

Definition. In spite of the fact that the name Diesel has 
spread over the entire world but few engineers have ever tal 


the time to study thoroughly the movement of the engine and to 
learn of its practical application and uses in the engineering world. 
This type of engine may be defined in a few words as follows: an 
internal-combustion engine which takes crude oil or the residue 

from oil refining into the cylinders without any previous trans- 
forming, and there converts it into energy, exerting that energy 
directly on the crankshaft through the pistons without any inter- 
mediaries and producing the simplest, most direct, and most 
economical operation. 


Cycle of Operations. The cycle of operations of the four- 
cycle Diesel engine is as follows: 

Stroke J, Admission. The piston travels down, or out, allowing the 
cylinder to fill with pure fresh air from the inlet valves. 

Stroke 6, Compression. The piston travels up, or in, compressing the air 
in the cylinder. The compression heats the air so much that the oil discharged 
into it will ignite and burn. 

Stroke S, Combustion. The piston travels down, or out. At the begin- 
ning of the stroke, when the crank ia on dead center, the fuel valve opens and 
the fuel charge, separately compressed by a small compressor, is sprayed into 
the heated air. The spraying extends over 12 per cent of the working stroke 
of the piston and the combustion is gradual, the resulting pressures being even 
and sustained, not explosive. 

Stroke i, Exhausting. When the piston reaches the lower, or outer, end 
of the cylinder on stroke 3, the exhaust valve is opened, the pressure relieved, 
and the piston travels up, or in, driving the exhaust gases of combustion out. 

Advantages. Owing to the steady application of its power, 
the lack of vibration, comparative noiselessness, reliability, and 
small space occupied, the Diesel engine is almost ideal. 

Relation to Diesel. The type of internal-combustion engine 
working on the two-cycle principle and burning the same fuels as 
the Diesel will undoubtedly in the future be used for all railroad 
service. Fuel can be obtained practically any place and the 
economies of such an engine are so great that the gasoline engine 
cannot compete with it. In simplifying the Diesel engine, design- 
ers have long looked toward the two-cycle type because it avoids 
the multiplicity of mechanism used in the regular Diesel engine; 
however, great credit must be given Dr. Diesel for having beaten 
the path. The two-cycle crude-oil burning engine occupies the 
field far more than the layman or the average engineer knows. 
A large engine builder at I,e Creusot, France, adopted the two- 
cycle type in 1914 to the exclusion of all others. The engine made 
by this concern has valves in the combustion chamber for start- 
ing purposes, but there is a general trend toward port inlet and 
exhaust; the latter is now general and the former is gaining in 
prominence with alert and progressive firms who realize the 
inherent defects of valves exposed to high temperatures. Another 
important phase of the two-cycle engine is crankcase compression, 
as it is simple and efficient. It has come into pronounced use in 


Great Britain, Sweden, and Denmark in the semi-Diesel engines. 
This type is a modification of the crude-oil four-cycle engine 
based on the Day patents. While this is a simple form of prime 
mover, it has never been developed and has acquired a bad rep- 
utation, largely because in building it manufacturers have followed 
common practice instead of eliminating flagrant defects in design. 
Nordberg Oil Engine. An oil engine of the single-acting two- 
cycle type is manufactured by the Nordberg Maufacturing Com- 
pany, of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Fig. 78. While this engine is 

Fin. 78. Working Diafrtun of Kordbe rg Single-Acting Two-Cycle Oil Enema 

primarily for stationary work, it shows what is being done and 
what adaptation to railroad service might be made. The crank end 
is of steam-engine design, that is, the engine is provided with a 
crosshead and connecting rod. The crankpin bearing is of the 
marine type and all moving parts are counterbalanced. Simplic- 
ity is the keynote of the design, there being no valves except one 
for admitting the scavenging air, so that the usual valve gear is 
lacking. Ignition is effected by the heat of compression and the 
fuel supply is controlled through a governor. The clearance space 


is almost hemispherical and the cylinder and the cylinder head are 
thoroughly water jacketed. As shown in the illustration, the crank 
end of the cylinder is enclosed and a stuffing box is provided for 
the piston rod. Air for scavenging is drawn into the crank case 
space on the back stroke of the piston through a piston valve 
mechanically operated by an eccentric on the main shaft. Mechan- 
ical control permits a later closing of the valve, so that more air 
will be drawn in by the piston. On the forward stroke this air 
is compressed and is admitted to the combustion chamber through 
the by-pass over the top of the cylinder when the piston uncovers 
the transfer port at A. The volume of air admitted through the 
by-pass may be varied slightly to obtain the desired pressure. 
When the port is uncovered the air sweeps into the cylinder and 
is deflected so that it forces the burned gases through the exhaust 
port B at the bottom of the cylinder. On the return stroke the fresh 
air remaining is compressed to about 450 pounds per square inch. 
Near the end of this stroke a quantity of oil, determined by the 
governor, is injected by a pump through a fine nozzle and dis- 
tributing device into the cylinder. The pump, which is of the 
plunger type, has a constant stroke and therefore draws in the 
same quantity of oil on each stroke. During discharge, however, 
part of the oil is returned to the suction through a by-pass valve, 
its opening being determined by the governor. On the pressure 
stroke the pump is positively driven by the eccentric on the main 
shaft and a cam which comes in contact with the plunger, the 
return stroke being accomplished by a spring. 

Fuel Economy. The fact that combustion is very complete 
and perfect is proved by the low fuel consumption. Although 
primarily designed for kerosene, the Nordberg oil engine was 
later adapted for use with various kinds of fuel, especially crude 
oil. It consumes between 0.48 and 0.55 pound of oil, which has 
a heat value of about 20,000 B.t.u., per brake horsepower hour. 
The low fuel consumption shows that this engine is a compromise 
between the low-pressure oil engine, for instance, the hot-bulb and 
the high-pressure type represented by the Diesel. 

Compression. As is usual in gas-engine practice, fuel economy 
lias been obtained by raising the compression. In order to avoid 
the premature ignition that inevitably occurs if the mixture is 


compressed beyond a rather low limit, air alone is compressed and 
the fuel is injected at such a time that the ignition comes at the 
proper moment. How to secure ignition at exactly the right 
instant is the most important problem to be solved in a high- 
compression gas engine. The complicated and expensive, though 
effective, means by which it has been solved in the Diesel engine 
has already been described. In order to secure prompt and regu- 
lar ignition, the compression of the two-cycle engine must be 
pretty high, the pressures ranging from 390 to 520 pounds per 
square inch. The ultimate pressures depend not only upon the 
ratios of the cylinder volumes at the beginning and the end of the 
stroke but also upon the temperature and amount of air drawn 
into the cylinder, the temperature of the cylinder walls, the effi- 
ciency of the cooling system, and some other factors that cannot 
be exactly determined beforehand. Taking into account the 
average values of these unknown factors, the ratio of compression 
must be chosen between tV and ^g, that is, the contents of the 
combustion chamber must be from iV to is of the total volume 
of the cylinder when the piston is at the bottom of its stroke. 

Advantages. It will be seen from Fig. 78 that surprisingly 
simple construction is employed for the two-cycle crude-oil burn- 
ing internal-combustion engine. In consequence an engine of this 
type may be produced at low cost and, owing to its great sim- 
plicity, the maintenance is low; altogether it is an inexpensive and 
reliable source of power. 

The author believes that the solution of the problem of the 
use of the internal-combustion engine for railway service in the 
self-contained motor car and locomotive will be found along 
the two-cycle lines. The development of that type would be 
more rapid if the desire for extreme simplicity (which is not found 
on steam locomotives) were eliminated and as much thought were 
directed to the two-cycle engine as has been given to the four- 
cycle engine. 


As the financial factor is the governing one in inducing rail- 
roads and all transportation companies to use and operate a 
certain type of motor cars and locomotives, a comparison of the 


first coat, operating expenses, etc., of self-contained motor cars and 
locomotives and of other types is very essential. In any com- 
parison of operating expenses of different types of rolling stock or 
motive power the greatest problem is to equate the unequal factors, 
or to establish comparable services with the same volume of traffic 
under the same conditions and with the same earning capacity. As 
the volume of traffic is a variable quantity and is stimulated or 
retarded to a considerable extent by the type of motive power 
used, it can readily be seen that this comparison must be very 
carefully worked out; for example, under most conditions the self- 
propelled railway motor car will stimulate more new business than 
either electric traction or steam service. However, there are still 
conditions, especially on long distances, where the steam service 
will handle the passenger traffic more successfully. 

The cost of constructing and equipping a new 22-mile line 
for electric or gas operation is given in the following tabulation. 
Track construction is necessary in both cases and its cost is a 
variable quantity (depending upon the cost of right of way, cuts 
and fills, bridges, stations, and local requirements) but is the same 
whether the line is electrically operated or gas operated. There- 
fore this item is omitted in the total estimate. 

600- Volt High- 
Tension Electric 
Installation Gas Cars 

2 motor cars $ 24000.00 $38000.00 

rrolley, transmission, and feeder lines at $3500 per 

mile 77000.00 

Rail bonding at $450 per mile 9900.00 

2 substations at $24000 each 48000.00 

Power bouse at $3000 per mile of track 06000.00 

Total investment $224900.00 $38000.00 

Interest at 5% per yetr on investment 11245.00 1900.00 

Interest per car mile based on yearly mileage 

of 128480 0.0875 0.0148 

Saving in first investment 186900.00 

Saving in interest by installing gas motor cars.. 9345.00 
Saving in interest per car mile by installing gas 

motor cars 0.0727 

These figures were taken from actual service in 1914, and 
where comparisons are made today they should be in accordance 
with present prices. The cost of the electric system was obtained 


from the Engineering News and the Electric Railway Journal at 
the same date, in which elaborate detail estimates covering the 
cost of 600- volt, 1200- volt, and single-phase electric lines and the 
cost of electric cars were given. The cost of 600-voIt sixty- 
passenger cars was given at $12,000 to $16,000 each, but for the 
comparative figures $12,000 was used. 

The gasoline railway motor car averages 3 miles per gallon of 
gasoline but some cars do better, the number of miles varying 
according to the weight, speed, and horsepower of the car. The 
cost of operation of a 200-horsepower motor car per car mile when 
the motorman is paid $125 per month and the conductor $100 
per month, assuming a car mileage of 150 per day is as follows: 


Fuel 4.4 cents 

Oil and waste. . 0.4B cents 

Cleaning 0.99 cento 

Repairs 2.7 cents 

Miscellaneous supplies 0.37 cents 

Crew 4.2 cento 

Total cost 13.11 cento 

Running and shop repairs average 2 to 3 cents per car mile. 
With the large and ample proportions of the engines placed in 
these cars, which increase the life of the cars, a cost of operation 
per car mile of 16 cents is a conservative estimate for the gas- 
oline car. 

Recent reports in electrical engineering magazines have shown 
the operative cost of the modern and up-to-date electric inter- 
urban lines in Indiana, Ohio, and Illinois to vary from 19.4 to 
20.8 cents per car mile. These lines have the most efficient 
power plants, serve large cities, and give frequent service; there- 
fore, the cost per car mile is less than on short lines. In an 
article published in one of the electrical journals an electrical 
engineer gives the detail cost of operation of electric cars and 
shows the cost of operation and maintenance of substations to 
vary from $2000 to $6000 per year and the cost of maintenance 
of transmission, trolley, and feeder lines to be from $125 to $260 
per mile per year. Figuring the cost of electric power at 1J cents 
per kilowatt hour, which is conservative, and using the lowest 


figure for maintenance, transmission, and feeder lines, the cost per 
ear mile of operating an electric car would be approximately 
20 cents. In this connection it is interesting to note that the 
report of the Railroad Commission shows that the average cost 
of operating electric trolley roads in the State of Massachusetts, 
including city lines giving frequent service, is 17.8 cents per car 
mile excluding interest and depreciation and 30.527 cents per car 
mile with interest and depreciation. Therefore, taking an average 
cost of operation of 16 cents per car mile for the gas motor car 
and 20 cents for the electric, we have the following comparison, 
figuring that each car will make four round trips per day, or 176 
miles per day and 128,480 miles in a year. 

Coat of operation per car mile 20.0 cents 16.0 cents 

Interest on investment per car mile 8.75 cents 1.48 cents 

Depreciation per car mile 9.7 cents 1 .58 cents 

Total cost 38.45 cents 19.06 cents 

The figures just given show a saving in favor of the gas car of 
19.39 cents per car mile, and this saving in operation per car mile 
by installing the gas motor car in place of the electric car would 
mean a yearly saving, based on the yearly car mileage of 128,480 
of $24,912. Therefore the gas motor cars would soon pay for 

The operating statistics of the gas car as compared with those 
of the steam lines would show an even greater saving, since so far 
the electric car has shown a saving over the steam locomotive. 
As railroad statistics of operation are based on the ton mile 
instead of the car mile, it is rather difficult to make a comparison 
between gas cars and steam locomotives. It must be remembered 
that the steam locomotive usually handles a large train and that 
any direct comparison against it would be erroneous; therefore 
the comparison must be equated to meet the immediate con- 
ditions of traffic and service. 

The following statistics as tabulated are actual and represent 
conditions as they exist in reference to the operating costs of the 
individual gas motor car, or self-contained motor car. 

It should be noted that cost per mile for operators is not 
included in the cost of operation with the Hall-Scott equipment, 


= S8S °SS82S 

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which is owing to the fact that it has been impossible to obtain 
an accurate accounting from the Holton Interurban Railroad for 
wages paid to operators. The cost per mile for operators will 
vary in accordance with conditions of service and wage schedules 
of railroads in different localities throughout the country. A fair 
estimate of operators' cost would be a salary of $200 per month 
to motorman and conductor, which, on a basis of 150 miles opera- 
tion per day, makes the cost per mile $0,044. 


Cost of Operating Twenty-Eight Days in October, 1013, 

Local Freight Service 

(No repairs made during this period) 

Motor spirits, 4954 gallons at $0-1168 $578.62 

Gas engine oil, 146 gallons at 80.2158 31.60 

Journal oil, 15 gallons at $0.0592 0.89 

High t*st gasoline, 3 gallons at $0.2039 0.88 

Wages (motorman, $100.50; conductor $100.50; brakemen (two) 

$120.00) 333.00 

Total cost $944.89 

Locomotive miles 3438 

Car miles 10730 

Assumed weight of each car 30 tons 

Weight of locomotive 56 tons 

Car ton miles, 30X10730 321900 

Locomotive ton miles, 50x3438 192100 

Total ton miles 514000 

Total cost of operation $944.89 

Cost per ton mile $0.001835 

Operating costs based on practically the same system of 
accounting and covering the operation of a total of forty-three 
gas-electric motor cars in 1915 have been received from eleven 
different railroads, including such representative systems as the 
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway, the Atchison, Topeka 
& Santa Fe Railway, the St. Louis-San Francisco Railway, the 
Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railway, and the St. Louis 
Southwestern Railway. The resultant average operating costs 
covering a total of 752,965 train miles are as follows: 



Ann** Goat 

per TnJn MOe 

Fuel 5.4 cent* 

Lubrication 0.62 cents 

Total repairs, labor and material 2.82 cents 

All wages, including motorman, conductor, porter, brakeraan, or 

trainman, when same are employed 8.85 cents 

Cleaning car and equipment, including ice, coal, etc 0.58 cents 

Miscellaneous supplies 0.42 cents 

Total cost 18.69 cents 


Roseburg, Oregon 
August 20, 1914 
Mr. S. M. Mears, President 

Ewbank Electric Transmission Company 
Portland, Oregon 

Completed our fourth round trip today, total mileage 618.8 

Used ISO gallons distillate at 6 cent) $ 9.00 

10 gallons lubricating oil at 32 cents. . . 3.20 

5 gallons gasoline at 15 cents 0.76 


for 518.8 miles, or 2\ cents per car mile — about 1 cent per car mile leas 
than former run. Car is running fine and making time every day. 
Yours very truly, 

(Signed) H. B. Ewbank, Jr. 

With the installation of an electric starter we anticipate a further reduc- 
tion in coat per car mile amounting to at least J cent. 

In the following comparative statistics the figures given for 
the steam train are average figures. 


(3882 Miles) 

80-3 Enginemen's salary 9100.30 

81-1 Enginehouse expense 8.67 

82-3 Fuel for motor cars 168.51 

84-2 Lubricants for engine parts 86.60 

85-2 Other supplies for engine parts 6.43 

88-3 Trainmen's salary 267.98 

89-6 Other supplies and expenses — motor cars 83.94 

Total cost 1731.21 

Total cost per mile 0.188 

Fuel cost per mile 0.039 


STEAM TRAIN (3882 Mike) 

80-1 Engmemen's salary | 297.36 

81-1 Enpnehouse expenses 127.33 

82-1 Fuel for locomotives 394.02 

84-1 Lubricants for road locomotives 8.71 

83-1 Water for road locomotives 50.02 

86-1 Other supplies for locomotives 14,75 

88-1 Trainmen's salary 341.23 

89-1 Cleaning cars 23.55 

89-2 Heating and lighting cars 13.45 

89-3 Lubricating cars 2.21 

89-4 Icing and watering cars 4.54 

89-5 Other expenses 10.11 

Total cost $1288.28 

Total cost per mile 0.332 

Fuel cost per mile 0.101 


Cost per Mile 
(Average for eleven months, ending May 31, 1914) OnOne 

All Cub Section of 

of Syttem Railroad 

Fuel 6.01 cento 6.26 cents 

Lubricants 0.25 cento 0.25 cents 

Other supplies 0.54 cento 0.26 cents 

Cleaning and washing 0.85 cents 0.49 cents 

Motormen 3.71 cents 2.78 cento 

Trainmen 5.71 cento cents 

Running repairs 6.02 cents 6.74 cents 

Shop repairs 7.16 cents 2.48 cento 

Accident repairs 0.45 cento cento 

Total 30.71 cents 23.83 cents 


Steam Locomotives Miles per Hour 

Way freight 0.1 to 0.2 

Common passenger 0.2 to 0.5 

Transcontinental 0.1 to 0.3 


Common freight 0.1 to 0.3 

Through passenger 0.2 to 0.6 

Local passenger 0.4 to 0.6 

Electric motor cars 

Interurban 0.8 to 1.3 

City 1.3 to 1.6 

Rapid transit 1.3 to 1.8 

Highest rates 2.0 to 2.5 

Maximum rate used 

Coefficient of friction multiplied by 33.2 6.0 to 8.0 



Can. Tons power Hour 

Boston Elevated 6 202 2100 

Manhattan Elevated 6 148 1000 14.7 

Interurban 10 360 3360 23.0 

Berlin-Zoseen 1 101 1000 100.0 


To draw a conclusion from the foregoing statistics does not 
seem to be a very difficult task, but to overcome the seeming 
prejudice against the internal-combustion engine in railroad circles 
is quite another thing, therefore a general survey of the internal- 
combustion engine is quite in place here. 

Because of the rapid development of the internal-combustion 
engine in automobile, marine, tractor, and other fields, and the 
enormous production of such engines for use in the ordinary com- 
mercial life of the world, the principles of this form of prime 
mover are well known. It is used in all fields requiring motive 
power, and many applications of power owe their development to 
the economy and efficiency of the internal-combustion engine, so 
that whatever adverse criticism there may have been or is now 
is due to the mistakes and deficiencies of manufacturers rather 
than to the inherent principles and capabilities of the engine itself. 

A comparison of the thermal efficiencies of internal combustion 
engines and steam locomotives follows. For all practical purposes 
British thermal efficiency can be taken. 

Gasoline Steam 

Heating value of 1 gallon Heating value of 1 pound 

62 Baume gasoline 98200 B.t.u. bituminous coal 13500 B.t.u. 

Average fuel consump- Average consumption per 

tion per hp. hour, hp. hour, 3.43 pounds 46300 B.t.u, 

! gallon 12275 B.t.u. 

Steam engines on test 14 per cent 

Steam locomotives 5 per cent 

Diesel crude-oil engines 26-35 percent 

Gas engines 30 per cent 

Gasoline engines 16-25 per cent 


The Diesel crude-oil engines show the highest efficiency, their 
only drawback at the present time being their complicated and 
numerous parts. However, crude oil in the internal-combustion 
engine la in quite general use at present and the extent of its intro- 
duction into general use is very little appreciated. Whether we 
use crude oil directly in the cylinders of the internal-combustion 
engine or use it in making fuel gas — and in whatever manner we 
make the gas — there is no question that the generation of power 
in large quantities from this class of fuel can compete commercially 
with the production of electricity from water power. The internal- 
combustion engine is from two to five times as economical in the 
use of coal, gas, or crude oil as the steam engine, and a power 
plant equipped with such engines has an economy that it is 
absolutely impossible to secure with the steam boiler and com- 
pound condensing engines, even by the use of the best methods of 

The tendency of the self-contained motor car of today ia still 
along the lines of the early electric cars, that is, to place the 
transmission machinery and motive power — first the electric motors 
and now the gas engine — inside the car body and to transmit the 
power to the driving wheels through some form or other of trans- 
mission; it must not be lost sight of that these wheels have a 
certain vertical and lateral motion or, to be correct, the car body 
and truck frames have the motion in respect to the wheels, owing 
to the spring suspension and the play in the brasses. It seems 
strange that designers follow out the same practice used in other 
machines instead of designing for the problem in hand. Perhaps 
this may be owing to the fact that the gas-engine designer is 
usually unfamiliar with railroad conditions and thinks what applies 
to the automobile should apply to the self-contained car. More- 
over, the railroad-truck and car-body designers know next to 
nothing about the gas engine and endeavor to adapt whatever 
equipment is supplied to them. Furthermore, the designers of 
these two separate units do not seem to be able to get together 
and design in a logical manner. The future internal-combustion 
engine propelled motor car and locomotive must be designed by 
an engineer who can and does comprehend the duties that are 
placed upon railroad motive power. Scientific work in conjunc-